Arrangement of balconies
From Soviet times, people used the balcony as a warehouse for unnecessary things or winter blanks - due to the lack of an alternative. Today, this stereotype breaks down, and the balcony becomes a very important part of an apartment or house, where they happily drink tea by a friendly company or simply admire the beautiful view. Arrangement of balconies is a matter that needs to be approached as seriously as possible. In this case, the result will not disappoint you, the balcony will be the highlight of your home.
Features and benefits
If you turn to the dictionary, the balcony is defined as a room reinforced on beams, protruding from the wall of the facade of the house,where there are no appliances for heating. It can be glazed or have a simple open area with a fence. The average depth of the balcony is 1-1.5 m.
Currently, almost all houses and apartments have a balcony. This is a big plus for the owners of living space, as the loggia is an additional place that can be used. Very often it is made part of the room in which it is located. Sometimes the balcony becomes a separate room for rest or a well-stocked store for winter supplies.
If the view from the balcony does not please with its magnificence, then you can make a small garden, and modern housewives manage to harvest cucumbers, tomatoes and several types of greenery. Loggia is convenient to use as an office for work or as a great place for needlework and creativity.
However, it should be understood that any interference with the design of the balcony, the movement of partitions, insulation or glazing of the balcony is a redevelopment, which has its own rules and features. This must be taken into account.
Types of balconies
All extensions are divided into 2 types: loggias and balconies.Not everyone knows what the fundamental difference is. The fact is that the loggia is surrounded on three sides by walls and built into the building itself. The balcony is a part protruding from the facade, surrounded by a lattice fence.
Balconies and loggias are open and closed. Open ones are those that are not glazed and have an open space with a fence. Closed balconies are also divided into 2 categories. There is cold and warm glazing:
- Normal glazing implies the presence of simple window frames, without special heaters. On such a balcony, having a good time in the warm season, but in the winter, you will have to take warm things with you.
- Warm glazing involves the conduct of parallel work on the insulation of the hull of the balcony and window frames. Here the cold is not terrible, in any weather there you can spend time without fear of freezing.
Today, many choose stained glass windows. It differs in that window openings occupy the entire space of the balcony - with the exception of the floor. Glasses are inserted into special grooves of the same size, creating a mosaic look. This balcony has its pros and cons, which should understand.As a rule, this design is quite light, it can be installed on old balconies. More sunlight comes into the house, which will save a little on lighting. But at the same time, such windows are hard to wash, and they will also have to be blacked out or hung up with thick curtains, since all the space will be clearly visible from the street.
Balcony spaces vary in their configuration and shape. There are the following types:
The angular forms are G- and P-shaped. The balcony in the shape of the letter G has a long inner wall with a small side. The rest is glazed or has open space. If the back wall is longer than two side walls, then this is a U-shaped balcony. There is a triangular appearance, when an acute angle is formed from two adjacent walls.
The second type can be attributed round balcony and a bay window option. They have an unusual shape and differ from standard loggias and balconies. At the round balcony between the two walls there is a semicircular base with the same enclosure. The bay balcony also has a semicircular shape, but its feature is that it is part of the house or apartment initially.
By the combination is a balcony in the form of a trapezoid. It has a semicircular shape with bevelled corners on the sides. There are non-standard forms resembling a shell or a wave - everything depends on the flight of fancy and the means to translate the idea into reality.
One of the most interesting types of balconies is the attic. Usually it happens only in private homes. Attic is an attic room with slanted walls (in the form of a pyramid). It can be increased if you attach a balcony space to it. There will be a great place to relax or work space. Very many housewives break a garden there.
Types of designs
Today, there are several types of balcony structures, which differ in their design:
- Balconies on the console beams. The peculiarity of this type is that the main slab, which is the base of the balcony, rests on reinforced concrete beams. According to the standard, they should be brought into the wall at 1.5-2 m. This type is often found in old houses or in high-rise buildings.
- Cantilever on a reinforced concrete slab. The difference from the above option is in the type of support of the base, here it is supported by a reinforced concrete slab.This type of construction is used in apartment brick houses, since the weight of the slab is quite significant.
- Fastening with external support. These balconies are always different in their size, they are usually large and spacious. Their support is columns or special supports. Such balconies can be placed no higher than 1st floor.
- Added type. Installation of the balcony area is done on the basis of the supports located on the sides. Under them must be built the foundation. By type of construction and fasteners this type of balcony can be attributed to modern.
- Attached. This design appeared relatively recently. Fastening is based on horizontal beams, which are attached to the supporting wall or building. It is one of the inexpensive options.
- Suspended (suspended). The mounting system at the suspended balcony is quite simple, it is “hung up” on the pins or anchors mounted in the facade of the house.
- Transformer. This type of design is very interesting, it appeared on the market recently. An architect from Holland proposed the idea of sliding windows that form an ordinary balcony. They are transformed into a small balcony room.It does not need heating and easily turns back into a regular window.
The dimensions of the balcony room depend on the building in which it is located, since each building has its own specific metric area and permissible load on the facade of the building. Regardless of where the balcony is built, it should have a standard height according to GOST - 2.6 m.
At the time of the Khrushchev buildings, the length of the balcony ranged from 2.8 to 3 m, while the width was 0.6-0.8 m. The result was a small and narrow balcony, about 1.8 square meters. At the time of Brezhnev, the standards remained almost unchanged, and the total area was 1.7-1.8 square meters. m
Over time, loggias and large balconies began to appear. Their length could vary from 3 to 6 meters, while the width was 1.3-1.2 m. In total, the resulting space was 3 square meters. m or more.
In prefabricated houses, the area is approximately 2.5 square meters. m, while in block houses balconies can reach up to 4 square meters. m
Making repairs in the house, you always want all corners and rooms to be brought to its logical conclusion. Balcony is also no exception. However, you should be aware that any interventions need to be coordinated with the relevant authorities (BTI).
Usually in apartment buildings a balcony is not provided for the first floor. Many owners of apartments on the first floor attach a balcony on their own. To obtain permission, you need to take into account a number of requirements. If the rules are violated, the building may be considered illegal and demolished. Keep in mind the following rules:
- One of the important points of the requirements is obtaining permission to build a balcony from neighbors. It is necessary to take written permission from neighbors (top, right and left) that they are not against such works. If at least one of them refuses and considers that this extension will interfere with it, then the construction work will have to be canceled.
- Next, you need to make high-quality pictures of the facade of the house, which will be attached to the application for a change in layout.
- The next step is to obtain a building permit from the housing and utilities sector. It is also necessary to submit documents confirming the ownership of this living space, the registration certificate of the apartment, the construction plan of the first floor, as well as the design of the future balcony. It is best to contact a specialist for a technical project (in the department of architecture), since an ordinary person does not understand all legal aspects.
- You must also learn about the current state of the house. When it is dilapidated and has defects, it is unlikely that construction will be given permission. If the house is a historical monument of architecture, then they will not be allowed to interfere with the layout of the house either.
Permission to build a balcony will not be given in the following cases:
- An extension will degrade the appearance of the house. Especially this is monitored in homes located close to the city center or near the sights.
- If the new structure will violate the supporting structures and fixtures.
- Engineering networks are located at a close distance (2-2.5 m) from the place of the future balcony.
- If the construction will be used materials of poor quality.
If for some of the points was refused, but the person still acted differently, this could lead to a number of troubles. First, if you sell this apartment, there will be a number of difficulties, and secondly, you will have to pay a penalty for illegal construction.
After obtaining all permits, you can build a balcony. It is allowed to build on both on the second floor and on the fifth floor, but this is not always easy.
Every home owner has the right to redevelopment, but all changes must be coordinated with the relevant authorities and housing code. Attaching a balcony area to a room's area is a very affordable way to increase space, but it is not quite simple. According to housing law, the full connection of the premises to each other is unacceptable. There are certain standards explaining why this cannot be done.
Living room refers to a warm room, and the balcony - to the cold. The heating system of the house is not designed for heating the balcony space. If the majority of apartment owners want to combine a room and a balcony into one space, this can affect the work of the heating system at home. It is not designed for additional cold air, so the temperature level throughout the house will not meet the standard.
Since the average temperature of the house will be too low, you will have to heat the water in the pipes more strongly in order to warm up the air. These actions can put a significant load on the heating system and provoke an emergency situation (a pipe, especially an old one, can burst due to high temperatures. There is a prohibition obliging to separate warm and cold rooms.
So, we can conclude that any association is illegal, but there is a method that allows partial integration of the balcony space with the room.
It is allowed to put glass sliding doors between rooms to the full height. When the doors open, the balcony becomes part of the room. It is very important to properly warm the balcony room, as it is strictly prohibited to take the heating system to the balcony. In the winter time (with an imbalance of temperatures), the windows will fog up and the balcony will become damp. This can cause mold. For this reason, it is necessary to approach this issue as competently as possible.
The wall block separating the balcony and the room can be dismantled in most standard constructions, since it is not part of the load-bearing wall. Cleaning or moving the threshold is strictly prohibited. It serves as a counterweight to the concrete bed or closes the joints between the plates, preventing moisture from getting there.
If the room has a balcony, then this is a big plus. Balcony room is usually used for unnecessary things and trash, but it can and should be used practically.
Initially, a loggia or balcony has to relax and contemplate the beautiful. There you will get a wonderful recreation area, a lounge area.
From this space you get a beautiful room, the main thing is to determine which one:
- In the room you can put soft pillows, put a coffee table, put a small corner sofa. Soft lighting will help to give a romantic mood and lack of comfort. You can add a balcony with a hookah. Pleasant and cozy smoking will allow you to relax as much as possible, and the smoke will easily go out through the window or create a beautiful smoke.
It is important to know: if cigarettes or a hookah are often smoked on the balcony, it is better to install an extra hood, as there is a risk that smoke can get into the house. Do not forget about safety, because a cigarette or fabric can easily catch fire from cigarettes. Therefore, for the balcony, reserved for hookah, well suited blinds and tiles.
- The balcony is also an ideal place for an office. You can simply place a comfortable desk and an office chair. To create a working atmosphere, it is better to repaint the walls in shades of blue. You can just hang the curtains of this color.
- Very often the kitchen has a balcony. Practical housewives try to combine these spaces to make the balcony part of the dining area. Entrance to the balcony can be arranged arch or columns. When cooking in the kitchen, you can very quickly and easily set the table in the next room. If space allows, then there will fit an angular or U-shaped sofa, as well as a round table for meals.
- Balcony, combined with the hall, today - the most common way to expand the room. The main thing is to make sure that the slots and partitions on the glazed balcony are well processed, since in winter, due to the temperature difference, condensation will appear on the windows and drain to the floor.
- Lovers to bask in the sauna or bath every year becomes more and more. When there is no private house with a bath or it is not possible to go to the paid sauna, there is an unusual solution to this problem - to re-equip the balcony or loggia under the steam room. This seems like an impossible task, but in the age of high technology nothing is impossible.
The most important thing in placing a sauna on the balcony is not to use brick and concrete in the decoration, as they will make the balcony heavier and it can collapse. It is also necessary to provide high-quality waterproofing of the floor.Such a small steam room is designed for use by one family.
- Placing on the balcony of the gym is one of the rational ways to use the space. If a person is embarrassed to go to special places for sports, then the option of seclusion on the balcony is just fine. If the dimensions of the room allow, then there will fit a small treadmill or exercise bike. Balcony gym is also a great place to practice yoga.
- If there is enough living space in a house or apartment, then a balcony or loggia can be altered as a storage room. It is convenient to store harvesting for the winter and the harvest. For this, as advised by the master, it is better to make racks or pallets of wood. For potatoes, carrots, onions, it is better to make a thermogun so that they do not appear mold.
- For lovers of beautiful balcony can be converted under the greenhouse. Since ancient times (starting with the Egyptians) gardens have been set up on loggias. If you are going to equip the space, you need to consider the following points: high-quality sealing (otherwise the wind will break the microclimate of flowers and plants), moisture-resistant coating (tile or linoleum).
You will need to think about heating (it can be a heated floor), as well as darken the windows depending on the direction of the world where they are looking (if the balcony faces east or south, good tinting will help the plants not to suffer from the scorching sun).
- Pallets with different varieties of petunias will look very nice along the balcony perimeter. They are unpretentious in leaving, and the color palette will please every day. On the walls you can start ipomeyu. Since this plant looks like a vine, it will decorate the walls beautifully. Well will feel on the balcony and alissum. In the warmer months, it can be hung on the facade of the balcony. A spray rose in pots will also complement the interior with its beauty. If you want to have a large variety of flowers on the balcony, then you can plant different mixtures of annuals every year.
Do not forget that on the balcony you can grow some types of vegetables and herbs. It can be cherry tomatoes or cucumbers. They do not need a lot of space. As a green salad it is easy to grow basil, dill, parsley.
Facade arrangement outside
Outside trim of the balcony - one of the final stages of repair.Beautiful facing surface will add aesthetic beauty to the balcony and the house as a whole.
If the house and the balcony are made of brick, then one of the most simple and low-cost options is painting a brick wall. Before painting it is necessary to clean the surface from moss, fungus or other contaminants, process it with alkali. After that, the brick wall is leveled with a special mortar. It is very important that the weather is clear on the day of dyeing, otherwise the paint will fall badly.
Acrylic or water-based paint is suitable for use. It is advisable not to choose catchy shades, if the apartment is located in a high-rise building.
Very often do cladding clapboard. To do this quite easily, with the right tools, you can do the job yourself. First comes the installation of crates. It can be made of both wood and metal (the masters prefer it to be named). After that, with the help of screws is lining mounting.
Panels made of plastic or PVC are mounted in the same way as regular wall paneling. Such a material is durable, it is beautiful and quickly attached.
On the first, second and last floors, for safety, it is best to install grills over the facade to prevent thieves from getting through the balcony to the house.The fence with art forging looks very beautiful. This is a very costly option, but for the sake of safety and external beauty, you can spend a little more.
If the loggia or balcony is located in a private house or on the top floor of a high-rise building, then you should not forget about the roof. The most common type of roofing for the roof - profiled. These are sheets of steel coated with a zinc layer.
This roofing material is easy to install and has many shades. Its only disadvantage is that during a rain every drop will knock like a stick on a drum. For this reason, it is necessary to make a sound insulation layer.
PVC can be used for roofing. The frame will serve as a window frame. Plastic sandwich panels are inserted into a special metal housing. Such a roof is complicated in execution and has a considerable price.
If there is not enough money to install a full-fledged roof (or you just want to have a beautiful open balcony), then you can make a carport. There are several forms of visors:
- Leaning. This view is suitable for any balconies. It is very easy to install and will be a good protector from precipitation.
- Gable This peak is suitable for large loggias or balconies, as it takes up a lot of space. Often they put tiles on such a roof, creating a very original and “rich” look.
- Arched. It is usually made from elastic materials - for example, polycarbonate. It can be of different colors, has a good light bandwidth.
- Dome. As a rule, such a shed is made for large balconies in order to create a beautiful garden or greenhouse. It is complex in its construction and is also made of polycarbonate.
Experienced craftsmen advise to do the roof and glazing of windows on the balcony immediately, as the holistic design will be much stronger.
When working together, a single (durable, but at the same time light) metal frame is made on which the roof is easily laid. Do not forget about the parapet. If it is old, then it is urgently necessary to change it - and in no case begin to glazing the balcony. Normal durable parapet is made of brick or concrete.
When simultaneously finishing the balcony outside and inside, you should consider what the entrance will be made from, namely the door. It is usually made from the same material as the window.If it is plastic windows, then the door should be the same. As for the door and window handles, then their choice should be approached as seriously as possible. Handles are one-sided, with a lock, there is a shell handle, two-sided options.
Refining a balcony, it is necessary to pay due attention to the choice of materials for its finishing, proceeding from what functions it will carry out. There are several materials for the balcony room.
For lovers of beautiful views from the balcony there is a great unusual option - to make a panoramic glass balcony from floor to ceiling. It is worth noting that this version of the skin will be quite expensive. Glass balcony has its advantages and disadvantages.
- Benefits: the level of natural lighting in the house rises, the opportunity to look at everything that happens outside is opened up. This will help increase the space.
- disadvantages: it is necessary to wash windows very often to keep the view beautiful; with improper insulation in the winter time there will be an ice crust on the windows; people will see everything that happens on the balcony.
The covering of a balcony wooden lining is one of the most widespread and old ways. There are 2 types: eurolining (dry boards) and regular boards without impregnation. Masters are advised to choose dry bars, impregnated with a solution of mold. The advantages of a wooden coating are obvious: the environmental friendliness of the material, ease of use, reasonable price and aesthetic appearance.
A kind of clapboard is a block house covering. These are boards that have a flat surface on one side and a convex one on the other. They are also convenient to use and create a beautiful relief texture.
Currently there are wooden, vinyl, fiber cement and metal siding panels. Cladding of siding is suitable for both internal and external decoration. This type has many positive qualities: a large selection of textures, environmental friendliness and resistance to temperature extremes. This material is easy to use, has a small price.
To be as comfortable as possible on the balcony in winter, it is necessary to warm it. This process is multi-step and requires clarity in execution:
- it is necessary to lubricate all the gaps and joints of the plates on the balcony with a special or plaster mortar. This will allow a minimum of 14% to reduce the blowing and cooling of the balcony in the cold season.
- warming For internal insulation using 2 layers of foam polystyrene. 1 layer - 5 cm panels, 2 layer - 2 cm. This material has a special edge for a tight joint, but you still need to coat the contacting surfaces with a special tool.
- use of penofol. This is a heater that has an aluminum reflecting element. Usually it is 2, 3, 5 and 10 mm. Usually use 2 or 3 mm. Its main function is to reflect radiant energy.
- mount the "rough" bar. It is attached through insulation, directly into the concrete.
- facing coating (wall paneling, siding, drywall).
If everything is done correctly, in the cold season, the balcony will be pleased with warmth and comfort, and there will be no risk of mold.
Equipping the interior space of the balcony, you must do all the work in a strict sequence, otherwise you will have to redo it. It is necessary to decide on the color range of materials for covering walls, ceiling and floor before repair, and not during it. As a rule, after glazing a balcony, you can begin to finish the ceiling.
Before aligning the surface of the ceiling and its further installation, you must remove all the wires for the chandelier or lighting. If the choice fell on the paint, the surface must be leveled, after which you can apply paint. It can be acrylic or water-based paint. Preference should be given to light tones, so it will visually increase the height.
Recently, stretched ceilings have been installed on the balconies. They look great in any room and serve their owners for a long time. It will look beautiful cassette coating, where the panels are inserted into the metal case. Behind them you can hide the wiring, put a Wi-Fi router, if there is enough clearance.
Often ceilings are covered with sheets of drywall, which at the end is painted in any desired color. If the wall covering is made of wood panels or PVC, then the ceiling can also be overlaid with such a coating.
The first thing to do is to insulate the walls. If there is a partition from the neighbors between the balcony to 2 apartments, then it is better to consider its sound insulation. Do not forget that in some houses it is impossible to put partitions on a common loggia, as there is an emergency exit. In this case, you can put the door.It is worthwhile to think over in advance where the opening for the hood will be - if there is a hookah on the balcony or if cigarettes are often smoked there.
Before covering the walls it is necessary to do all the wiring. If there is any kind of lighting, then you should decide in advance on the location of the lamps or wall sconces.
On a flat wall will look great wallpaper. It can be various wallpapers that can help increase the space and create the right atmosphere. Recently, a novelty - liquid wallpaper. They are very easily and quickly applied to the wall, there is no toxic smell from them.
To maintain the overall theme of the balcony on the walls, you can attach the wall paneling, it will provide a beautiful embossed pattern on the wall. The main thing is to impregnate all wooden surfaces with a special solution so that they do not rot and become covered with mold.
At the end of the finishing work, you can begin to attach the curtain rail. They can be completely different shapes and sizes, but many prefer blinds - due to their practicality and ease of use.
In no case should you weigh the battery on one of the walls in the balcony from the main room, as this is illegal and can cause some problems.
Do not forget about the doorway between the room and the balcony.If possible, it is better to make it wider - for convenience. It can be made sloping or in the form of an arch.
If you are going to lay the floor, level the floor. If you plan to warm the balcony, you can lay insulation or make electric heated floors. As for the materials for the coating - there are several options: tile, laminate, self-leveling floor, carpet. A large number of people prefer tile, as it is easy to use, durable, easy to maintain, has many shades and types. Such material does not cease to be popular.
When the insulation of the balcony, its glazing and all the finishing works are finished, it's time to fill the space with furniture for life. Fittings should be selected under the main purpose of the loggia or balcony. Very good, if it is functional.
To organize the space of the balcony under the storage system, you can make a convenient design of the shelves with drawers. If there are no load-bearing walls and adjoining balconies on the loggias, the boxes can be built into the wall. A simple solution is to install a pair of sturdy nightstands.They can be used as storage space, as a sitting place, on which you can only put a soft pillow for convenience.
A place to store machine wheels, bicycles, scooters and other things can be made hanging racks or shelves. So things will not spoil the look of the balcony, will remain free space.
Since in most cases, the balcony room is small, then there must be selected proportionate furniture:
- If this space is selected as a lounge area, then the ideal solution would be to put a few soft and comfortable ottomans around a compact table for small things. As a rule, they have a removable top, and inside there is a department for storing magazines or books.
- Beautiful and high quality couch also fits perfectly into the interior of the loggia or balcony. He can replace the couch or bed. Modern trestle beds are equipped with drawers, which will allow you to store there as ordinary things (blankets, bedspreads, winter clothes), and blanks for the winter. From above you can put decorative pillows of beautiful flowers.
- If it is an open-type balcony, it is best to install an ordinary wooden bench out of furniture. In the cold season it is possible to lay a warm and soft blanket on it. You can also cover the surface with a cloth that is easy to clean from street dust and dirt. It is very convenient for modern hostesses.
- When the balcony is combined with the bedroom, then the ideal solution would be to put a chest of drawers for things. If the windows are thick enough curtains, the balcony space is perfect for a dressing room.
- Combining the balcony with the kitchen, you should think about the placement of the dining area. For small balconies suitable sofa-corner with built-in worktop. Seats, as a rule, rising. Kitchen utensils can be stored there (pots, pans, meat grinder, and more).
No matter how the balcony space is reoriented, you can always decorate it or make a highlight of your home.
On the external facade you can hang pots with beautiful flowers and every morning, opening the window, you can rejoice at their flowering and aroma. Beautiful decoration can be a decorative bird feeder.
If this is a recreation area, then a hammock will fit perfectly onto the balcony, on which you can happily rock, read a book or simply take a rest from a hard day’s work.An interesting solution would be to set up a small bar, where in the evenings you can treat friends and relatives with delicious cocktails and have fun. For additional entertainment, it is better to put a stationary computer where you can watch movies with the whole family.
If the balcony is open, in the summer it will be very convenient to sunbathe on the rug or on the lounge chair.
From the balcony you get a good full laundry. To do this, you need to install a washing machine. If there is not enough space for drying clothes, then outside the balcony you can hang brackets for laundry.
If you do not have the time and money to make a full-fledged gym, place a wall panel on the balcony. It does not take up much space and will help improve health.
Owners of balconies on the first floor have a good opportunity to make an additional entrance to the apartment or house through the balcony. To do this, you just need to install a ladder, a reliable door, and also lattices on the windows - for security.
Options may be very different. The main thing is to take into account all the nuances, then the result will exceed all expectations.
Lighting on the balcony can be completely different.It can be wall lamps, floor lamps with beautiful lampshades, just an LED strip, laid around the perimeter of the balcony. The most important thing is to avoid precipitation. If the balcony is not heated or it is open, then you should give preference to frost-resistant and additionally protected lighting fixtures.
If the balcony is oriented to the greenhouse, then there may be special UF-lamps, as in the winter time there may not be enough light in the flowers.
If the balcony is given under the office, on the desktop there must be a lamp for spotlighting in the evening.
For information on how to warm and finish the balcony, see the following video.
Interesting design solutions
As can be seen in the images, there is not very much space on the balcony, but it turned out to be a wonderful seating area.
The balcony is also ideal for a small garden.
Very interesting solution for the design of office space on the balcony.