Glazing the balcony do it yourself
Balcony - a multifunctional space in the apartment. Over the past couple of decades, it has evolved from a pantry for winter clothes, grandma’s compotes and outdated objects, which the hand did not lift to throw out, into a full-fledged part of the dwelling. Of course, this applies only to the variants of the closed type. If it is still blown by all winds and is regularly covered in winter with knee-deep snow drifts, the glazing of the balcony will save the situation with its own hands.
The glassed-in balcony allows you to intelligently optimize additional square meters in the apartment, turning it into a study, mini-dining room, dressing room, playground, workshop for creative family members.You can break in it a winter garden or equip an area for your beloved pet.
It is quite possible to perform glazing on your own, but you need to take into account some of the nuances of the work.
Firstly, it is important to understand what is the difference between a balcony and a loggia. Many apartment owners confuse these concepts, and yet the types of glazing of a loggia differ from the types of glazing of a balcony. The glazing of the loggia is simpler, since it is bounded from two sides by walls - it is “inside” the living space. A balcony is a construction protruding from the wall of the facade of the building. It "hangs" above the ground and is taken out of the main square.
Secondly, you need to decide on the method of glazing - cold or warm.
Cold consists of a single layer of glass and lightweight frame. This method provides relative sound insulation, protects the room from dust, wind and sunlight, if the glass is covered with a UV filter, but does not hold heat. It is suitable for arranging summer kitchen on the balcony, temporary bedroom or study, and in winter - for storing food in the cold.
The warm glazing assumes more difficult, heavy and reliable design. And more expensive.It consists of window frames with double seals and double-glazed windows, which provide the ability to maintain room temperature on the balcony at any time of the year and use it in a convenient quality.
Installing warm windows requires more time and strict compliance with the conditions:
- Good thermal insulation and waterproofing. Condensate between the glasses is unacceptable, they will fog up and worse keep warm.
- The ability to provide natural ventilation of the room.
- The presence of air circulation system between the balcony and the room.
Thirdly, it is necessary to study the legal side of the issue, intending to make changes to the design of the room. Balcony plate is designed for a specific load. Exceeding the allowable weight can lead to its collapse, and this is fraught with negative consequences.
Nowadays, it is quite easy to get expert advice and permission to improve such a plan, which was not foreseen during the construction of the house. It is easier to spend a little time studying the Housing Code before starting work than to solve the problems that arise after.
Popular types of glazing
The most common ways to protect the balcony from rain, wind, layering of street dust, frost and visits of feathered guests are: sliding glazing, panoramic, with the removal of, on the carrier frame.
Each type of glazing has its advantages and disadvantages.
Simple (classic) glazing with a wooden frame and single glazing refers to the cold method and is installed mainly in apartments of the Soviet type. It protects from moisture, noise and street dirt, but does not differ in special aesthetics and great opportunities.
The design is equipped with a special roller mechanism, which makes it easy to push the sash and takes up minimal space. The mechanism works on the guiding rail principle: the flaps move one after the other.
This type is not suitable for every balcony, expert advice is required, but for small balconies this is the best option. It does not occupy even half of an extra centimeter, saves space, protects against insects, dirt and precipitation.
The negative aspects include the fact that roller mechanisms may not withstand the harsh conditions of the Russian climate in the winter season.If they freeze, it will be impossible to open the windows. The design implies a single glass, so it will be cold at a minus room temperature.
This type of glazing implies the absence of any frame. Along the top and bottom, guides with grooves are inserted into which the glass is inserted (with the help of special fixing units). Glass fencing takes up all the space from floor to ceiling, revealing a beautiful view from the balcony at any time of the year. At the same time sections are glazed in various ways: sliding, hinged, folding.
For panoramic glazing is used glass of special strength, with a special coating to neutralize thermal radiation. It looks beautiful and can provide maximum noise insulation. It has several disadvantages:
- At high temperatures, the glass heats up and heats the room. Blinds should be provided during installation. In the cold season it retains heat poorly.
- The surface requires frequent washing, since dust is clearly visible on it, water drips after rain are visible.
- The design as a whole is much heavier and more expensive than any other material.
- Installation is risky and requires high professionalism, so it can not be carried out independently.
With the removal
The essence of the method is that steel profiles are welded to the balcony parapet, on which a wide window sill is fixed. It is the basis that holds aluminum or plastic construction for the glazing of the balcony. Such glazing is suitable for narrow and small balconies with a strong parapet.
Modified balconies look beautiful (especially if they contain a greenhouse), expand the space practically and visually, and have a functional wide window sill.
The disadvantages include the fact that the own weight of plastic structures is large enough. It is necessary to properly assess the current operational state of the plate and parapet. Aluminum frames have less weight, but they keep heat worse. On such a balcony it will be cold in winter.
With carrier frame
The most difficult method, which involves major changes in the appearance of the outer side of the balcony and requires a lot of time and a few pairs of workers. At the same time it is also the best, because it allows you to glaze a fully open balcony,which does not even have a visor, and turn it into a warm living space for the next 15-20 years.
This Soviet-type glazing is popular - despite the complexity and heavy weight. Its advantages:
- The welded frame made of steel is cheaper than other materials. At the same time it differs in the bigger durability and wear resistance.
- The usual enamel for the bathroom is suitable as a coloring coating. It gives a beautiful resistant color, shine, reliable protection against corrosion, and it costs much less than PVC.
- Ability to install visor. This will not only turn the balcony into a living space, but also allow you to distribute the load over the upper floor and to load the balcony slab less.
- You can replace the frame parapet. It is easier to install the frame, it is cheaper, and in appearance it is not inferior to the panoramic balcony in an elite house.
- It is easy to warm the frame with drywall and foam plastic.
- You can insert windows of any type - from traditional wooden to solid glass.
- Due to the strength of the frame, only wind load is applied to the glass, so they can be made in any width.
- The problem of the old parapet does not matter. It can be eliminated, and the carrier frame can be made lower or higher than the previous level.
The balcony glazing system is represented by a set of sashes for windows, a window sill, a heat-insulating material (most often it is foam), external sheds and interior decoration.
The choice of material depends on the purpose of the balcony room and determines the final cost of the changes. If the balcony is used as a place for drying clothes and storing preservatives, it makes sense to give preference to budget materials: light aluminum frames or duralumin and single glass. Such a balcony will be unheated, and the difference with sub-zero temperatures outside will be no more than 6-7 degrees.
If you plan to arrange an office on the balcony, a playroom for children or a place to receive guests, you should choose more reliable and expensive materials. It will be a “full” or “warming” glazing, which will allow you to use the balcony as a living room at any time of the year or to combine it with the room, dismantling the wall between it and the balcony.
Convenient because they do not require additional efforts to warm the balcony. In the case of a low-budget repair, simple PVC light frames and single glass, massive double-glazed windows will do.For better tightness, you can replace the gap.
The choice of type of double-glazed windows determines the ultimate goal of repair. For any technical characteristics that satisfy the requests, the basis of this type of window will be a PVC profile frame. The kit includes all the necessary hardware, as well as single-layer or multi-layer sealed glass.
The frame (static element) is mounted in the window aperture, and the “stuffing” can be chosen at its discretion: which way the sash will open, will there be a window with an impost (transverse bars along the horizontal or vertical line), what will be the strips on which the glass unit is fixed what glass windows will be made of.
The most common material for the production of glass is four-, five-or six-millimeter glass. In a separate group it is necessary to allocate "triplex" - double glass with a layer of transparent tape.
The double-glazed window can be single-chamber or two-chamber - depending on the number and parameters of the cameras.
PVC frame from the inside also consists of a number of compartments, jumpers (stiffeners). Their purpose is to create segments in the profile cavity that are filled with air. The more compartments, the higher the heat resistance.
The number, volume and placement of air segments inside the profile are strictly defined, since some of them are necessary to ensure rigidity, some provide for the outflow of water, and some are necessary for fastening fittings.
The level of thermal protection depends on the thickness of the glass and the distance between them. The warmest will be the balcony, which is glazed with double-glazed windows of different thickness and at different widths from each other. An important role is played by seals, which are laid along the edge of the glass unit.
As for glass, its properties may be different:
- reflector reflects the sun's rays;
- reinforced - fire resistant;
- tempered - impact resistant;
- colored absorbs solar energy;
- laminated provides excellent sound insulation (another feature of the "triplex" is that with a strong blow it does not break into fragments, but cracks and remains inside the film).
Their appearance has undergone significant changes over the past few decades, but the trend towards the installation of wooden frames continues to grow. They have a small number of advantages, if we compare them with the same PVC profile: beautiful, natural, eco-friendly.However, the disadvantages are also not very many - they require high-quality installation and good care. Wood must be treated with special protective solutions and paints, otherwise it will quickly lose its appearance, will begin to rot and crumble.
Glass in a wooden frame, you can insert any. A cold single without a seal will make the balcony beautiful, but unsuitable for use in the winter season. Expensive double-glazed windows with a compactor will solve two problems at once - both aesthetically and practically.
Stained glass or pseudo-stained glass looks beautiful in wooden frames. You can order it from the master or perform it yourself. This can be done using a stencil printed on the printer and ordinary acrylic paints on glass. If there is no time or desire to engage in creativity, you can buy in the store a finished film stained glass window on any subject.
Aluminum profile - the most current version of the balcony glazing. This is due to the fact that in most old houses the condition of the balcony slab and parapet leaves much to be desired. To install a heavy steel frame on them is not very safe, and aluminum is quite light and does not give such a load on weak floors.
Convenient aluminum profile on small balconies.It allows you to save or even expand the space by several tens of centimeters (due to the frame with the removal). Frames of this material look aesthetically pleasing, they are quite durable. If you paint them with protective enamel, the service life will increase significantly.
The most important advantage is that it allows much more light into the room than a profile made of wood or plastic. And this is especially important if the balcony is used as an additional living space, and not the second storage room.
Getting to work, first of all you need to think about how to minimize the risk of injury, his and passers-by below. A miniature home-style coffee house in the spirit of Montmartre is, of course, good, but safety is paramount. In the first place it provides a safety belt. It is considered the most reliable industrial, but high-quality sports is quite suitable for one-time work.
Choosing a belt, you need to pay attention to the length of the safety halyard (rope). It should not be too short so as not to impede the work, nor too long, so that a traumatic jerk does not happen during the fall. The optimal length is 2.5 meters.
It is necessary to take into account the information on the product certificate. The safety belt and carbine must withstand a load of up to 400 kg. You should not purchase a product without specifying this information and non-certified products.
For the period of repair work, the safety halyard is fastened with an anchor stud with a metal collet. The collet must be firmly mounted into the main wall (at least 15 centimeters deep), and the stud must be screwed in all the way into it with a screwdriver or mount.
With your own hands does not mean alone. The glass is not only fragile, but also quite heavy, so it is recommended to carry out an independent glazing of a balcony with at least one partner.
When your own safety is assured, it's time to take care of others. It is unlikely that compensation for the damage caused to health from the mount that fell on the neighbor's head is included in the cost estimate for the repair of the balcony. The space below should be protected with a bright construction tape. It is worth warning about the planned work of neighbors from the upper and lower floors.
Balcony glazing requires a careful approach. Preparation for repair work is carried out in stages:
- Cleaning.First of all, you need to take out things from the balcony, remove the blinds (if they were installed), remove everything that may interfere during work.
- Evaluation of operational status. When the balcony is not littered, it must be carefully examined from the inside and outside - for damage, decay, breakaway concrete, cracks, rot. If the condition of the slab and parapet is satisfactory, you can proceed to the next stage.
- Elimination of defects. During the inspection of the balcony may be problems that have been made during the construction of the house. Before installing the profile and glazing it is recommended to align all the irregularities and bevels that may hinder the work.
How to glaze wooden structure: step by step instructions
Independent glazing of a balcony with a wooden structure implies a sequence of steps:
- Surface preparation for work. When the balcony is cleaned, inspected and put in order, it's time to get rid of all the internal and external coatings. Then it is necessary to eliminate accumulations of dust and other pollution.
- Measurements. Accuracy of measurements of window openings determines how well the frame will fit to the base, so it is important to be extremely careful and double-check the resulting values.
- Installation of a wooden "box".The “box” consists of wooden bars forming the base for the frame. It is fixed at the level of the existing balcony railings and the upper beam. Side bars are mounted to the left and right surfaces of the wall. All bars are fixed with metal brackets.
- Installing lathing for interior trim balconies. If this step is provided for in repair, it is performed until the balcony glazing itself. When the surface of the walls, floor and ceiling is covered with panels or clapboard, you can proceed to the installation of windows.
- Frame installation Before the glazing starts, the glass must be inserted into the frames and secured. They are made to order (according to individual sizes), purchased ready-made or made independently - from profiled wooden bars with grooves.
Glasses are inserted into these grooves, pressed with slats and fixed with nails on three sides.
- Processing gaps insulating materials. Even with the most careful preparation, it is impossible to assemble the frames completely without gaps, like a good designer. Be sure to remain the slots that need to be treated with tow or foam.
- Installation of platbands. It is carried out after thermal insulation, in no case before.
- Processing wooden frames with protective equipment. The covering protecting from moisture is applied in 5-6 layers. Then the frame can be worn, painted, or left clean.
Installation of metal
The most affordable type of glazing without the help of a wizard. During the installation and installation process, you will need: a drill, screwdrivers, a hammer, a trowel, a knife, self-tapping screws, polyurethane foam.
Algorithm of actions step by step:
- Workpiece slats. 10-15 fragments with an area of 4 to 4 cm, which are needed to align the line of the parapet and correctly align the windows along the horizon.
- Removing the glass from the frame. The manufacturer delivers a one-piece construction of PVC and double-glazed windows, but before installing the frame the glass must be removed, otherwise the frame will be too heavy.
Remove windows should be carefully, putting them in a row against the wall. For reliability, you can shift a soft cloth or thin foam.
- Removal of sashes from window hinges.
- Installation of the stand profile. This is a required element of the kit, necessary for ease of installation of the window sill. Its height is only 20 mm, it can not be installed without the support profile.
To install the profile, you need to rotate the frame 180 degrees, insert it into the groove, fix it on the underside of the frame with a wooden (not steel) hammer.
- Installation of frame mounts. Stepping back from each edge of the frame 15 cm, fasten the plates on the top panel - using a hammer and screws from 3 cm in length.
- Installing windows. The most difficult moment at this stage is to fix the frames on the parapet. It is necessary to do this with assistants so that the frame does not “look out” beyond the perimeter. It is important to note that the screws do not drive into the dowel, but twist.
After fixing the top level, the frame will hold fairly reliably. Then you can fasten the other sides, connecting them with screws at a distance of about 6 cm.
Interlocking frames are leveled using level and plumb.
- Processing gaps and gaps from the outside.
- Installation of a window sill.
- Installation of slopes and ebbs. At the same stage, the perimeter of the window and the joints are processed with silicone.
- Installing glass according to the instructions.
- Hanging sash.
How to glaze a balcony with sliding windows, see the following video:
Aesthetic frameless glazing is chosen when it is necessary to let in a maximum of sunlight into the room.It is a sliding system of shock-resistant glass (transparent, tinted or stained glass). There are no frames and partitions, and the glass at the top and bottom are attached to metal profiles-rails.
On the lower profile, under the outer flap, a fixing tape is placed, which is necessary so that the opened flaps do not touch each other.
Such a balcony can hardly be warm, because fitting the glass to each other without gaps will not work. The only way to reduce the gap - acrylic mezhstekolnye seals. They are included in the kit and are designed to put them on the edges of the glasses, like covers.
The system is equipped with rubber seals, which are laid outside - between the doors and aluminum profile. They are necessary in case of sleet and rain.
The system seems quite easy, but at the same time it is very durable (due to the thick glass) and perfectly protects from precipitation, wind, noise. The thickness of the glass is selected in accordance with the height of the balcony. With a height of over 200 cm, a thickness of not less than 8 mm is required, with a height of less than 2 m, 6 cm is sufficient. The width of the valves varies between 60-80 cm.
In conclusion, we offer you a video clip, which tells about the methods of economical glazing of a balcony.