The extension of the balcony is a legitimate and fairly simple way to increase the area of the apartment. Of course, it will not increase by 5-10 square meters, but enough to stop storing old skis and sweaters eaten by moths on the balcony, but to think about the office, the playground, or the home greenhouse.
The choice of how to increase the space on the balcony depends on the type of balcony and its size, the height of the floor, the current operational status, the ultimate goal of redevelopment.
By type of construction distinguish balconies:
- On the console beams. Bearing plate supported by steel beams, recessed into the wall of the facade of the building at 40-50cm. Used mainly in the homes of the old stock. .
With this type of balcony you can expand it at any height if the parapet is strong enough.
- On the console plate. The base plate of reinforced concrete as if “pinched” between the upper and lower part of the wall of the facade. To change this design can only be in houses of brick. Modern buildings of aerated concrete and porcelain blocks can not withstand the additional load, then the structure will collapse.
- On external supports. The balcony slab below is supported by brackets or columns. This method is convenient because it allows you to significantly increase the area of the balcony, but there is a chance that the foundation of the columns or the facade will begin to settle unevenly, which will lead to the curvature of the building. And the second drawback is that columns can be installed only at a height of 1-2 floors.
- Attached, attached, mountedThis is a modern type of balconies, which can "attach" to the already finished building with the help of supports and front racks.
Often they need free space below to install mounts, consoles and racks.
- Balconies, loggias. These balconies are half indoors and half protrude beyond the edge of the facade wall. They can also be increased in several ways, but such projects are more difficult to coordinate and implement, since the reconstruction of a balcony-loggia can affect the bearing walls and is very different from the reconstruction of a full-fledged balcony or loggia.
Permissible changes are determined by the capabilities of a particular type of balcony and its location above the foundation level. It is equally important to assess what the current technical condition of the room is and whether the stove will withstand the additional weight of the above-built structures.
They can be built on in several ways: on the windowsill and on the base of the slab.
Expansion on the windowsill
Expansion according to the “Klondike” technology, is performed during glazing of the balcony with carrying out. This method requires less time and money and can be implemented without legal registration of changes. Its essence lies in the fact that metal profiles (structures made of channels and corners) are welded to the existing railings, on which a remote sill is placed with a width of 10 to 35 cm.
The floor area remains the same, but visually the volume of space increases, and space on the functional sill and above it is freed up.
Use the window sill at its discretion, it is quite durable and reliable and will withstand any manipulation. The weight of the solid construction depends on the type of materials used for the glazing. If it is PVC-frame and double-glazed windows, the method is suitable only for a balcony in perfect technical condition. The aluminum profile can even be glazed with a balcony in the house of the old foundation.
Such a frame does not have a large body weight and does not bear the risk of collapse.
Since the aluminum and duralumin profiles belong to the cold type of glazing (that is, they maintain a slight difference with freezing temperatures outside), the balcony is used as a seasonal room. In the summer, it is possible to arrange a place for family tea drinking, a sports ground or a berth for guests, and in winter it will be ideal for storing conservation and plant breeding.
Base plate extension
A more time consuming and expensive process, in most cases requiring legal issues.
There are three options:
- Technology "Butterfly". It assumes an increase in the area due to installation on the sides of the balcony of double-glazed windows at an angle of 45 degrees. The effective area practically does not increase, but more light begins to penetrate into the apartment, and the window sill can be extended to the left and to the right. Expansion is possible both on the one and on both sides, but the symmetrical version is more aesthetic.
One-sided extension suitable for corner balconies.
- Technology "Takeout". The best option to increase the actual area of the balcony by one third. Installation of external structures is possible both on the widest side of the parapet and on all three.
- Combined technology. The combination of “Butterflies” and “Carrying Out” gives a beautiful increase to the square. In this case, the widest part of the slab is increased by one third, and oblique windows forming a trapezium are installed on the sides.
The process of capital expansion at the base of the slab consists of the following steps:
- Cleaning on the balcony. First of all, you need to free up the workspace in order to adequately assess the technical condition of the balcony, take out things, eliminate defects that were made during the construction of the house.
- If repairs are made without the involvement of specialists, before the start of work it is necessary to provide for safety measures
- Dismantling the glazing and parapet, if any;
- Expansion of the base for the selected method. At the same stage for the balconies on the last floor is installed visor;
- Installation of railing;
- Mounting frame;
- Balcony glazing;
- Finishing work on the inside and outside of the balcony;
- Cleaning debris.
In general, the process of expanding the balcony is not difficult. Its main stages can be viewed in the following video:
Is it possible to increase without permission?
Changing the layout is a delicate matter. It requires a serious approach and study of the legal side of the issue. Often there are doubts, is it possible to increase the area of the balcony without permission from the relevant authorities? The answer to this question depends on how drastic changes are planned. For example, to expand the space by 30 cm or less, such permission is not required, and all other changes are carried out strictly on legal grounds, as they are considered to be redevelopment of the apartment.
If you do not have the time and desire, you can limit yourself to a visual increase in space by three dozen centimeters, but this may not be beneficial. Before you begin to implement the idea, you should carefully weigh the possible costs in both cases and the possible benefits. Often it turns out that the long-term procedure for the design of the reconstructed living space wins with the design of all documents.
When the decision on redevelopment is made, it becomes necessary to prepare a package of documents that will allow you to receive an administrative “good” for repairs.
How does this happen?
- First of all, it is necessary to declare to the city department of architecture your desire to carry out major repairs. To do this, according to the established model, apply for permission to develop a draft redevelopment and submit it to a special commission. The Commission will make a decision in the period from 30 to 90 working days. This scheme is valid for apartments located on the 2nd floor and above. For property on the ground floor level, in which redevelopment implies the construction of a foundation, it will be necessary to coordinate the project with organizations managing the land plot under the dwelling house.
- When an affirmative answer is received and confirmed by written permission, it is the turn of the next stage.. It involves contacting a project organization specializing in developing projects to change the layout of residential premises.
A project that meets all the requirements of GOST will be ready within a month.
- The finished project must be coordinated with the fire organization, sanitary-epidemiological service, MOE. If it is approved by all authorities, the owner of the apartment is issued a warrant for the start of repair and construction works.
- Works are performed in strict accordance with the plan. Any deviation from it will require the issuance of a technical report on admissibility and safety and a new review of the project, which will take several months and may not be approved. When the redevelopment is completed, they invite a special commission consisting of employees of the city council, members of the public service, representatives of the project organization who participated in the development of the project.
After this, the BTI fixes a new layout and footage in the documents for real estate. Changes in the footage are made to the plan of the apartment.If you skip this stage, selling real estate after redevelopment will be quite problematic.
What happens if you start redevelopment without permission?
The law and the Housing Code contain the rules governing the construction of illegal buildings. As a rule, these changes are detected either when trying to sell real estate, or when complaints are received by the administration from neighbors, which are somehow prevented by redevelopment.
The lesser of two evils will be the need to legitimize change. This is a long-term process for a period of 3 months to six months, during which property owners risk not getting one fine and pretty much spoiling their nerves.
In the worst case scenario, the building will have to be dismantled, returning the original look to the balcony. In this case, dismantling can cost several times more expensive than the repair itself.
The final list consists of the following items:
- A statement from the property owner with an indication of the planned work and the rules for their implementation;
- Documents confirming that the property is owned (must be notarized);
- Also, the certified consent of adult owners of real estate and persons permanently residing in it;
- Replanning project with a copy of the license of the organization that carried out its development;
- Conclusion on satisfactory technical condition, supported by the license of the organization that approved the changes;
- A number of documents from the BTI, which includes a floor plan of a residential house and an explanation of the architectural project. If planning changes have already been made before, they should also be reflected in the certificates;
- Inquiries from authorized organizations: APU, SES, MES, DEZ, TSZH, State Expertise.
Create a project
In the process of creation it is important to take into account that any change in the appearance of a dwelling house is a reconstruction, which is carried out in order to improve living conditions. Most of the changes made to the configuration of the dwelling and its architectural appearance, necessarily agree and must be approved in all instances.
There is a risk that capital changes will not be approved, so some details need to be taken into account:
- The more difficult the changes are conceived, the more difficulties will arise with their coordination;
- Reconstruction of the balcony should not be reflected in the neighboring rooms.If the building will lead to cracks on the walls of the apartment from the lower floor, it will have to be dismantled. If a stove too protruding after expansion prevents light from entering the next balcony, it will have to be dismantled. The fate of the balconies is also quite obvious, still in some way interfering with residents from neighboring apartments;
- To approve a simple layout, a sketch reflected in the BTI floor plan is sufficient, and a complex one requires a whole project;
- Prohibited the complete dismantling of bearing and supporting elements;
- It is forbidden to warm the balcony by installing a radiator or other heating appliances on the walls adjacent to the neighboring ones;
- It does not make sense to build a reconstruction plan for a building that is in line for demolition in the next three years;
- The project that does not adversely affect the appearance of the facade or violates fire safety will not receive approval;
- It is almost impossible to get "good" for the reconstruction of the balcony in the house, which is considered a historical monument;
- The project-redevelopment, which was drawn up in the project organization (software) carrying out licensed activities, has legal force.Otherwise, it cannot be accepted for consideration and agreed upon;
- By the beginning of the planning work, the software must provide the property owner with a written opinion on the current operational status of the balcony;
- In case of violation of the integrity of the bearing and supporting elements, it is necessary to coordinate with the author of the project of a residential house (scientific research institute of municipal importance);
- The duration and budget of the coordination are determined by the nature of the changes, the floor space of the room, the height of the floor, and other factors.
The procedure for the expansion of their own hands
The increase in the area of the balcony without the involvement of specialists - the idea is complicated, but feasible. To accomplish it, it is necessary: the ability to work with a welding machine, knowledge of the basic properties of materials (in particular, strength and characteristics of metal structures), knowledge of safety engineering fundamentals for performing work at a level above the first floor.
All work is performed with at least one partner, with strict compliance with safety regulations.
In any case, you should start with the project. Whatever the changes - a wide window sill for flower pots or the transformation of a balcony into a living room, they must be carried out legally.If there is no time and desire to upholster the thresholds of housing and communal and administrative organizations, we can limit ourselves to an increase in the balcony area by 30 cm.
Next comes the turn of the standard procedures for preparing a balcony for redevelopment. It all starts with an elementary cleaning, and ends with the dismantling of the old parapet.
The parapet is cut almost completely. You can leave 30-40 centimeters of the length of the supporting struts that are needed to weld the new frame. Then a rectangular frame is fixed on the wall of the facade of the building - a new supporting structure of the balcony.
First of all, the upper and the lower metal pipes are installed parallel to each other. They lay the length of the extended sex. Most often, in order to avoid difficulties in coordinating the project, the length of removal does not exceed half a meter.
The next step is the installation of vertical pipes. They are mounted in the crossbar in the same way as the first two and fixed with anchor bolts. Then the metal frame is welded at the four corners. It turns out one-piece, monolithic, reliable design, providing the frame of the new balcony.
It is already possible to mount the hinged balcony on the frame.The procedure begins with the formation of the lower crates, that is, the floor is constructed first. Formed by its shaped tubes, which are laid perpendicular to the vertical of the facade of the building and welded to the frame.
The final touch in this block of works is the installation of the facade pipe.
At the conventionally designated second stage, works are performed in a vertical plane. A pair of vertical posts are installed and welded onto which the ceiling frame contour will subsequently lie. When it is welded, the whole structure should resemble a box parallelepiped. It is supported by its strong anchor bolts and a safety crossbar located diagonally below.
The hardest thing behind. At the final stage, horizontal crossbars of the new parapet are installed, which will hold the windows during the glazing. In the intervals between the crossbars, vertical guides must be welded, which are necessary for fixing the lining on the inner and outer side, and insulation. The distance between the guides - 50-100cm.
When the facade of the new balcony is equipped, it is the turn of another time-consuming procedure - glazing of the balcony. How it will be (cold or warm) and from which materials (aluminum, wood, PVC) depends on the type and weight of the superstructure. If it is massive by itself, do not increase the load on the supporting beams and slab, limiting yourself to the aluminum profile. If the operational state allows the use of heavier materials, giving a "warm" glazing, you can stay on the PVC-frame with double-glazed windows of different thickness, installed at different distances.
This option is the most aesthetic and allows you to keep the maximum heat in the room during the cold season.
Expansion of the apartment at the expense of the balcony in the "Khrushchev"
The renovation of the premises of the old foundation deserves special attention. Small "Khrushchev" built in the sixties of the last century, so some of them belong to the housing, which is not very reliable. Incorrect calculations and poor-quality execution can lead to serious consequences, therefore, professionals should carry out the expansion of the balcony area in an old house.
In case permission to re-planning is received, expansion of a balcony occurs on the same stages,as in the new building: the dismantling of the old parapet, the installation of a frame for carrying out, insulation, glazing, internal and external decoration of the balcony.