How to make a balcony with your own hands?
Balconies, although they are a very functional and indispensable part of the apartment, but still not all houses are equipped with them. Often there are layouts where the balcony is simply missing. But do not despair - the balcony can be designed with your own hands.
Let us consider in more detail all the details concerning the construction of balconies, as well as the main stages of this weatherization, finishing and arrangement.
Construction options and designs
You can make a balcony with your own hands, and this is not as difficult as it may seem at first glance. First you need to decide on the functional value of the building, on the basis of which both the size of the balcony and the place where it will be located will be determined.
The location of the apartment on the first floor provides a unique opportunity to simplify the construction - the base of the balcony can be supported on stable columns. There are also some nice bonuses in the form of the construction of a large cellar or even a separate entrance to the apartment.
The construction of the hinged balcony may not be possible due to the threat to the integrity of the facade and the whole structure of the dwelling, therefore, the concrete base should be made with a separate fastening and additional supports supporting it from below.
Fastenings can be designed both in the horizontal version, where the lower and upper parts are simply attached to the facade of the house, and to have corner supports, which, in this case, are the best, most secure, option.
How to get permission to build?
Unattended construction of the balcony will not be possible without obtaining the appropriate permission.You will need to collect a package of certain documents and submit them to the right authority.
The list of documents required for the construction of the balcony:
- Plan of the apartment and the project of residential premises.
- The project of building a balcony (it is better to entrust this stage to professionals).
- Written and legally certified permission to build received from neighbors.
Next, you need to contact lawyers for advice and receiving notice that the building is completely legal. For illegal construction by the court may be imposed penalties and demolition of buildings.
After obtaining permission from a lawyer, you will need to contact the BTI on the same issue.
In no case should we not neglect legal assistance, since for an extension of the balcony to an apartment on the first floor, you may also need permission to use the land under it (its purchase or privatization).
Before construction, it is necessary to prepare an appropriate project in which the basic parameters and features of the future construction will be observed and indicated.The balcony is no exception and also needs to be designed.
Consider the features and procedure for designing a balcony:
- First of all, before the start of the design, it will be necessary to collect some information regarding the functional features of the house itself. It is necessary to clarify whether additional buildings are allowed according to technical data, as well as the parameters that the building may have;
- Based on the data obtained, a rough design of a balcony room is made, which is necessary for presentation to lawyers in order to obtain a building permit. Further, the project is being finalized, improved and presented in this form to the BTI;
- During the design it is necessary to take into account absolutely everything: the stability of the structure, the severity of the materials to be used, as well as the equipping of the balcony with appropriate fixings. In order for the construction to be reliable, it is necessary to take into account all aspects and to reflect them as accurately as possible on the drawings, according to which the construction will be carried out.
How to make a balcony on the foundation?
The balcony on the basement is naturally built only in apartments on the first floor.The construction is rather cumbersome, but its scheme is unlikely to be too complicated.
The construction of balconies of this type is made on a strip foundation, which is a kind of closed-loop contour, made of reinforced concrete beams. This foundation must be erected under the bearing walls and foundations of the future structure.
After the foundation is erected, the markings are completed, all the necessary excavation work is completed, then a strong frame is welded, a coupler is poured, walls are constructed, glazing is installed, and external and internal finishing works are carried out.
A portable balcony is the skeleton of a room that has been placed on the street. It is a separate part and has nothing to do with the walls of the room space, with the exception of the adjacent central wall, in which the entrance is located.
To build an external balcony, it is necessary to build a frame and take care of the reliability of the fixings, especially supporting ones. After the construction of the frame will need to build a floor plate, it is best that it was reinforced with reinforcement and made of concrete.
It is necessary to make a screed open balcony for reliable floors.
Good ventilation is necessary to ensure the circulation of fresh air in the room. Few people think about it during the construction of balconies, so it often happens that the smell of dampness appears in a warmed room, fungal microorganisms develop and windows often mist over.
There are two types of balcony ventilation:
- special valves responsible for the supply and exhaust air mounted in the frame of the window frame on the balcony;
- electric fan.
It is worth noting that the system with a fan is more powerful.
Balcony in a private house or at the cottage
Undoubtedly, when building a private or a country house, the thought of a balcony involuntarily comes up, because what could be more beautiful than balcony gatherings on warm summer evenings. Consider more options for the construction of balconies in private homes.
Ideally, the base of the balcony is the concrete slab that should be laid initially during the construction of the house, since the construction would be more reliable. But there are options for the completion of the balcony, the basis of which rests, for example, on the columns.Thus, the lower part of the balcony becomes a kind of visor.
It is not at all necessary to build a stone or concrete option, it is enough just to make a strong foundation. The railing of the balcony in a private house may well be decorative - forged or cast openwork, depending on individual preferences.
It is much easier to make a balcony in a wooden summer house, both during the construction of the house, and to attach it after it is completed. The wooden base rests on the vertical beams or on the corner brackets located under it.
But it is worth being careful when choosing wood for the balcony floor - it should be strong and reliable.
How to hold the light?
Often, balconies are not only warming, but also trying to equip them with such a functional thing as lighting. But how easy is it to hold the lighting on the balcony without harming the repair and interior of the apartment? Let's take a closer look at the easiest ways.
First of all, it is necessary to determine the place from which the line will be drawn. There are three options:
- flat shield - the lighting will be powerful, but you will need a large amount of cable, which will have to pull, if not through the whole apartment, then after a couple of rooms;
- Adjustable box - the best option;
- the closest socket - a small amount of cable is used, but the lighting may not turn out as powerful as we would like, since it will be directly related to the work of electrical appliances in the next room.
Wiring can be both open and hidden. The simplest option is open, the wire can be simply fastened to the walls or hidden in baseboards, corners or a special plastic cable channel.
Conducting a closed wiring may be slightly difficult in the presence of a fresh repair, because in order to hide the wires, you will have to make walls.
How to make a visor?
The visor is part of a closed balcony, and its functional role is to protect the glass from raindrops and reduce the flow of sunlight entering the room. The first thing you need to decide on the size of the visor. It is best to have its length slightly longer than the length of the balcony, and the free edge extends slightly beyond the railing. So the visor will be the most functional, protecting the balcony from falling rain.
The next step will be the construction of fixtures. They can be completely different: straight, slightly tilted or even in the form of a small arc.The main thing is that all fastenings should be made of high-quality metal profiles and corners, since with the hand-made construction of a balcony, reliability and safety are valued above all.
The construction of the visor ends with a roof. It will be necessary to pick up the material:
- tile or slate, which is often used to cover the roofs of houses, is suitable for a straight surface;
- for an inclined surface, the most reliable and easy option will be metal sheets, which are also called profiled sheeting, as well as durable ondulin;
- bending metal sheets or polycarbonate are suitable for the arc.
Roof on the top floor
If everything is clear with the middle floors - the concrete base of the other floor above serves as the roof of the lower balcony, many questions arise regarding the balconies on the last, upper floor, because not everyone knows how to make the roof yourself.
There are two options for the construction of the roof on the balconies of the upper floors:
- Construction of a dependent structure - the system of fastenings is made, which are the basis and the supporting part of the structure.This option is more reliable because the roof rests on the structure and is well fixed on it.
- The construction of an independent construction - are not used supports and racks, and the roof is fixed only to the outer part of the wall.
For the arrangement of both designs will need metal profiles and corners, polyurethane foam and large screws, equipped with waterproofing seals. And for the roof itself, a material such as polycarbonate, tiles, or any other roofing materials, as well as various types of steel sheets, is perfect.
It should be noted that after the construction of the structure, it will be necessary to seal all the cracks carefully in order to prevent moisture from entering during the rain.
When building a closed-type balcony, the main problem may be its insulation, since a cold room will be functional only in the warm season. Let us consider in more detail how to make the balcony insulation and its main stages.
The first step is to install insulated double-glazed windows, since with ordinary thin windows the heat is unlikely to linger long inside the room.Necessity is the waterproofing from within the room which is made for the purpose of protection of the room against humidity.
If desired, and if necessary, after making waterproofing, you can cover the balcony floor with insulating electric mats, which are commonly called “warm floors”. Such an idea will help to heat the room and regulate the temperature in it.
In addition, if finances allow, it is possible to warm the walls with the help of special foam blocks during the construction process. The material perfectly keeps the heat inside the room and controls it not sharp, but gradual cooling.
One of the examples of warming balconies and loggias can be seen in this video.
After construction and insulation of the balcony room, the necessary step is to finish the interior. In order not to risk, it is better to provide the external decoration of the balcony with professionals who have special equipment and equipment for external work at height.
Interior decoration is based on personal preferences, the area of the balcony and its type - insulated or cold.For a small, insulated balcony, ceramic tiles or high-quality laminate with a protective backing are perfect as floor coverings.
Anything can be used to finish the walls: from decorative textured plaster to fleisilin wallpaper. But if the first option is also suitable for cold balconies with high humidity, then the second is suitable only for dry heated rooms.
For finishing of ceilings usually use facing paint, whitewash, plastic and wood panels. But, in truth, the most practical and visually attractive stretch ceiling is considered, which not only decorate the interior, but also will last for many years.
While some people are engaged in designing a classic balcony interior, others embody the most unusual ideas, turning the balcony into something completely unusual. Let us consider in more detail the most unusual ideas for balcony designs.
Installing dense, hermetically sealed double-glazed windows, clapboard trim and installation of powerful heating elements will help turn the balcony room into a real sauna.Of course, carrying out water procedures in such a room would be impossible, but it is quite suitable for a good warm up.
On the balcony you can build a wonderful lounge area, suitable for relaxation and stress relief. For example, you can put soft mattresses and pillows on the floor, and in the upper area decorate the room with fragrant beautiful flowers.
In addition, on the balcony you can install a decorative fountain, the sound of water in which will help you relax and distract.
Inveterate gardeners do not miss the opportunity to build plants on their own balcony, or even turn the balcony itself into a greenhouse. For this, polyethylene tents are additionally installed, or on the balcony itself the necessary temperature conditions are maintained and humidity is regulated.
Is it possible to make a cellar?
Unfortunately, not every person has a suitable place to store vegetables grown in the country, and every time to go after them outside the city is not quite a reasonable waste of time and their own strength. There is a way out of this situation - you can build a cellar on the first floor balcony, which will allow you to store a certain amount of garden provisions.
The cellar can be made both built-in and in the form of an independent construction - a warmed wooden box. For the manufacture of both, and another option will need different wood parts - boards, boards, corners, which will be located in two layers - outside and inside.
In the intervals between the two wooden layers is a heater that allows you to retain heat inside the structure. Foam blocks or expanded polystyrene plates are usually used as insulation. Both that, and other option possess fine heat-insulating properties.
In addition, in the area of the bottom of the structure, some small heating element is installed that will help to keep the temperature inside above zero degrees inside.
It is best to store vegetables and fruits in separate plastic containers - this will contribute to good air circulation and help to preserve the freshness of the crop longer.
How to decorate?
When it comes to the decor of a built balcony, you shouldn’t go too far in thinking of different delights and unusual interior ideas. For the balcony fit the most simple decorative items.
For example, an open balcony will help to decorate a wrought openwork fence or neat wooden partitions decorated with carvings. In addition, the main decoration of open balconies are outdoor flowers and climbing plants.
Simple, but beautiful interior items are suitable for decorating closed balconies: dried flowers, beads in transparent vases, figurines and paintings, as well as beautiful curtains with an unobtrusive pattern.
Ideas for a balcony
- A stylish and functional idea to design a balcony room is a bookshelf, presented in the form of numerous diamond-shaped cells.
- High table top and bar stools are the perfect solution for a balcony. In this setting, it will be nice to start the day with a delicious breakfast and finish with a romantic dinner.
- A soft comfortable chair, decorative lights, a coffee table and a floor lamp are what you need to spend cozy evenings on the balcony reading interesting books.