The proportions of cement mortar: the ratio and consumption
Cement is the main building material that is used in almost all sectors of the economy. With this substance, you can get very durable products that can withstand high loads and resist external influences. But all these characteristics also depend on the components used, and preparation technology. Cement mortars are widely used in construction, as they allow to simplify many operations.
Cement solutions are artificial mixtures, which after solidification form a solid structure. This product consists of several main components.
- Sand. It is used as the main component, as it combines a fine structure and relatively high strength. For the preparation of solutions can use river or quarry sand.The first type of material used in monolithic construction, allowing you to get very durable products.
- Water. This component is needed to bind sand and cement. The amount of liquid is selected depending on the brand and purpose of the solution.
- Cement. This is the main substance, which is characterized by high adhesion with other materials. Today there are several brands of cement intended for operation in various conditions. They differ in strength indicators.
- Plasticizers. Technically, these are various types of impurities that are intended to change the physical or chemical properties of the solution. They are not used as often as this can significantly increase the cost of the product.
Similar products are used to solve the following types of tasks:
- plastering - some solutions cover the walls to protect the building material, as well as to level the base;
- masonry - cement mixes perfectly connect a brick or a gas-block together, so they are used as a kind of glue located inside each joint;
- creation of reinforced concrete structures.
Types of formulations and requirements
The main characteristic of cement mortar is its strength. It is due to the ratio of cement and sand. The composition of the product can vary piece, which allows to obtain several types of mixtures. Each of them is intended for use in certain conditions. Therefore, it is important to properly prepare products for the construction of various objects.
One of the criteria for the separation of cement mixtures into types is the proportions of the internal components. It is worth paying attention that in one composition there can be only one brand of cement. But they can also change, since the strength will depend only on the concentration of the components. Conventionally, they are divided into several brands.
- M100 (M150) - these mixes differ in insignificant durability. For their preparation, you can use cement brands M200 – M500. But it is necessary to correctly select the proportions of cement-sand components.
- M200 - This is one of the most common types of solutions. It is used very often in everyday life for the construction of tracks and the formation of coatings that are not amenable to significant loads.This mixture dries relatively quickly, but it requires compliance with certain microclimatic conditions.
- M300 - this type of mortar can already be attributed to concrete types. It is used for the preparation of concrete, of which then make durable floor slabs, pour foundations and much more.
- M400 - it is durable concrete, which consists of high-quality cement grades (M350, M400, M500). Use it in the construction of foundations for multi-storey buildings. This solution is the basis for the manufacture of reinforced concrete floor slabs and other similar products.
- M500 - It is the most durable concrete that can withstand very high loads. It retains its original properties for many years and under the influence of various stimuli.
The quality of the cement slurry depends on almost all its components that are present inside. Sometimes the properties of the sand-cement mixture is not enough, so you need to adapt them under certain conditions.
This problem is solved by adding various impurities to the composition. With the help of such additives, so-called liquid glass is obtained.These products are used for plastering walls and other surfaces.
Today, several products are used as additives for cement mortars.
- Lime. As supplements, only slaked species are used. The introduction of this substance allows a slight increase in water vapor permeability and strength. But in order to prepare such products, it is necessary to respect the exact proportions. Very often lime-based plasters are made, which are beautifully applied to the walls.
- Pva. Glue improves adhesion and plasticity of the solution. It is important to choose the right concentration of the additive in order to get a good mix.
- Detergents. Such products affect the plasticity of the solution. Add them to the composition only after water. An exact dose of impurity per unit volume is also necessarily observed here.
- Soot or graphite. These substances have virtually no effect on the physical properties of the mixture. They are used only as dyes to change the color of the finished product.
The ratio of sand and cement
You can prepare a cement-sand mortar even at home, since it consists of available components.It is quite easy to buy them in almost any hardware store. But solutions differ in the ratio of cement and sand, on which the consumption and physical characteristics of the material depend.
The binding of bricks is one of the main tasks of cement mortars. For such purposes, not very strong marks are used (up to M400). To obtain a similar mixture, experts recommend the use of medium sand with a minimum level of humidity. Masonry mortar can be prepared using various grades of cement. But this will change the ratio of cement and sand. Some proportions are presented in table 1.
Table 1. The ratio of components depending on the brand of cement
Part of the sand
M500 (without lime)
M400 (without lime)
Please note that the calculation is desirable to carry out according to only one unit of measurement. In most cases, all parts count for 1 m³. But at the same time the masses of different materials in the cube may differ.
Concrete structures are also very often used in modern industry.These materials are manufactured in factories or directly on construction sites. The strength of such products also depends on the cement to be used. Technically, concrete can also be made from a M100 grade solution, but it will not withstand the load, and will have a minimum service life.
Another feature of concrete is the presence in the composition of rubble and other auxiliary components. They are introduced to change the technical characteristics of the product.
It should be noted that they can be mixed in various combinations, depending on the environment of use of concrete.
Today, many experts use the following ratio of components of concrete solutions, such as:
- 4 pieces of rubble;
- 1 part cement;
- 2 pieces of sand;
- ½ part water.
Please note that the proportions may change if you plan to use different polymer additives. In such cases, it is desirable to pay attention to the recommendations of manufacturers of these impurities.
For plaster and screed
Filling the floor very often involves the use of relatively liquid cement mortars. This consistency allows you to evenly distribute the mixture on the base andget a horizontal surface. Plaster almost always consists of pure sand, cement and water. Its density may be different, since everything depends on where it is planned to use it.
The most common proportion for producing plaster mixes is the ratio of cement to sand 1: 5. The consistency adapts to the needs of the master.
Particular attention should be paid to screeds that are subject to significant and constant loads. For such surfaces, materials should be used whose threshold strength is not less than 10 MPa. This is achieved through the use of concrete brand is not below M150. The proportion of preparation of the solution for screed depends on the following factors:
- the use of mixtures in order to conceal various communication elements;
- surface leveling thickness. If you just need to strengthen the floor with a slight difference, then apply a more liquid formulations. For thicker layers, it is desirable to use durable types of solutions.
Table 2. Proportions of sand and cement in screeds
Brand solution (result)
Brand of cement
Amount of cement (parts)
Amount of sand (parts)
Note that the proportions of the components in most cases are repeated. But the strength of the resulting solution at the output is different. This is important to consider if products will be used in specific operating conditions.
How to breed?
The process of making cement mortars involves mixing all the components in a certain sequence. A similar procedure can be described in several successive steps.
- First of all, you need to decide on the type of solution you need. At the same time pay attention to the strength of the resulting mixture. If this indicator is important, an additional calculation of all components should be carried out. Special attention should be paid to regulations or standards.
- At this stage, dry components are mixed, the volume of which is measured in 1 m³ or other similar units. Before kneading the solution, you should mix the sand and cement thoroughly to get a uniform mixture. Therefore, it is important to use solids.
- When the preparation was successful, you can dilute the mixture. To do this, gradually add water to it and thoroughly mix all the ingredients. It is best to use concrete mixers or other mechanical devices.The consistency of the solution is controlled by the liquid.
Tips and tricks
Preparation of cement mortar is a simple operation. In its implementation, it is recommended to observe a few simple rules recommended by the manufacturer and experienced builders, such as:
- if the mixture must be plastic, for this you need to add liquid soap to it. It must first be mixed with water;
- water should be added in small portions. Thus, it is possible to control the thickness of the mixture, which is very important for screeds or masonry;
- during construction, you must take into account the brand of the brick itself or other material. Experts recommend preparing such mixtures, which according to these parameters should match. This will allow you to get a uniform wall structure that will be durable;
- to improve the thermal insulation characteristics of plasters, it is worth adding perlite to their composition. At the same time they need to replace a certain part of the sand;
- It is recommended to use only fresh cement, the structure of which does not contain lumps. This ensures high adhesion and uniform mixing.
Cement mortar is an excellent material that allows you to get a solid structure. Properly prepared mixture - a pledge of durability of almost any structure and its base.
You will learn more about the proportions of cement mortar in the following video.