How to warm the apartment?
Additional warming of apartments is usually resorted to in panel high-rise buildings. Thin partitions are not able to prevent heat loss, which leads to an increase in the load on heating systems, the need to find alternative sources of heat (heaters, heat guns, etc.). This, in turn, causes an adverse climate in the room (the air is too dry) and an increase in utility costs.
Thermal insulation of the premises from the inside is in many respects inferior to thermal insulation from the outside. However, when it comes to isolating an apartment in a high-rise building, it’s not necessary to choose.
When insulating apartments from the inside, it will not be possible to completely avoid heat losses, in any case, they will be about 8-15%. This results from the fact that the wall which is not warmed outside will not accumulate heat. Moreover, cut off from the heated room by a heat-insulating layer, such wall surface will freeze through more and faster.
An important point will be the correct calculation of the "dew point", that is, the boundary of the transition of water vapor to a liquid state (water particles). Ideally, the "dew point" should be placed on the surface of the insulation, but this is possible only with external insulation.
To avoid the accumulation of condensate and mold on the inner surface of the walls, careful adherence to the technology of thermal insulation will help, primarily the installation of the vapor barrier layer.
It is worth noting that the process of wall insulation from the inside is much more labor-intensive and technologically complex compared to similar work on external walls.
Unobtrusive errors can lead to the fact that the microclimate in the room will deteriorate and the walls will freeze, which will negatively affect their condition and appearance and durability of finishing materials.
Warming the room from the inside requires high-quality ventilation.A standard supply system will not be enough, it is necessary to install a system of forced air circulation or install window frames with a valve system, thanks to which the air will move in the room.
When choosing and calculating the thickness of the insulation should take into account the material of the walls, heat loss indicators, the area of the room. When laying tiled insulation between the insulation elements, it is possible to maintain small gaps - “cold bridges”. The latter also appear in the places where the floor and walls, walls and partitions fit. In the course of work, these zones should be given special attention. Usually, internal insulation is resorted to, if it is not possible to make thermal insulation for the facade.
In addition, the insulation of the premises from the inside often acts as a supplement to the external insulation.
The modern market offers many types of insulation, each of which has its own characteristic advantages and disadvantages. Consider the most popular of them and find out whether they are suitable for internal insulation.
The leader among the thermal insulation materials are mineral wool insulation.They are the finest fibers, arranged in a chaotic manner. Thermal insulation is made possible by air bubbles that accumulate in large volumes between the fibers.
Immediately it should be noted that there are several types of mineral wool.
- From use slag It should be abandoned due to its low thermal insulation properties.
- Glass wool not recommended for interior use, as it releases toxic compounds.
- A worthy option can only be basalt or stone wool. It has a good vapor permeability and high moisture resistance. However, in an apartment, the steam will have no place to evaporate, so it will be transformed into particles of water and impregnate the insulation. Naturally, even a slight wetting of the insulating material causes the loss of its technical properties. To avoid such phenomena will allow the proper installation of reliable waterproofing material.
It is also important to choose the right stone wool. It should have a high density, and in its rigidity to approach the expanded polystyrene.
Since the Soviet times, foam plastic or its extruded variety is widely used for insulation. It should be noted that the latter has a higher thermal conductivity and better water resistance. This material can even be used to insulate a newly built and rented house, since polystyrene panels are characterized by tensile strength and compression. Negative changes in the insulation layer will not follow even if the building shrinks.
High rates of moisture resistance of the material make it possible to abandon the organization of the vapor barrier layer. Joints between the plates can be treated with foam. It, by the way, is suitable as a fixing compound when installing the plates. Penetrating into all cracks and air gaps, polyurethane foam provides a tight connection between the insulation and the working grounds.
The installation process is quite simple. - sheets have convenient sizes, and many modern products are equipped with grooves and spikes for easier assembly. If necessary, you can cut the material.
The low weight simplifies and speeds up the installation process, an adhesive is easily applied to smooth surfaces.However, in brick and concrete apartments it is more convenient to fix the material to the dowels in the form of fungi. To do this, holes are first made in the plates on the walls, after which the fastening systems are inserted into them and the plates are firmly fixed to the walls.
However, if in addition to thermal insulation, the room needs sound insulation, expanded polystyrene will not work. The values of sound insulation material is extremely low. In addition, it is flammable. The addition of special components to the raw materials of modern extruded polystyrene foam, of course, did not significantly increase its fire resistance, but it is not necessary to speak about the fire safety of the insulation. Another disadvantage is the release of toxins in the process of heating.
A modern efficient insulating material is polyurethane foam. This insulation is a foamed polymer that is sprayed onto the surface of the walls with the help of special equipment.
Before spraying onto the wall, a wooden sheath is fastened protruding a material guide. Sprayed polyurethane fills the entire surface, including cracks and crevices.In other words, after applying the material is a sealed monolithic layer, that is, any occurrence of "cold bridges" is excluded.
Another important advantage is the incombustibility of polyurethane foam. Even when exposed to high temperatures, it does not emit toxic compounds.
Insulation is characterized by low thermal conductivity, but to create a completely smooth and smooth surface is impossible. This leads, in turn, to the impossibility of contacting the heat-insulated wall with plasters and its painting.
However, this problem is easily solved by fastening the cladding panels or sheets of plasterboard onto the crates created.
Another modern insulation suitable for interior decoration is rolls and cork linens. This ecological material provides not only high-quality thermal insulation, but also sound insulation, and also gives the surfaces an original and noble appearance.
An important point - cork insulation can be mounted only on a smooth and even surface. In most cases, this can be achieved by plastering walls and fixing sheets of plasterboard to them, onto which cork insulation is then glued.
The material on the basis of foamed insulation, equipped with a foil layer on one side, is characterized by a small thickness and high thermal efficiency. It is called penofol, it comes in rolls 3-10 mm thick.
Despite the small thickness (which is also a plus, since the useful area of the room is not concealed during the installation), the insulation shows improved thermal performance. This is due to:
- Structural features of penofol - it consists of the smallest air-filled bubbles, which ensures low thermal conductivity.
- The existing foil layer reflects up to 97% of thermal energy, directing it inside the room.
When laying rolls of penofol end-to-end and sizing the joints with a special aluminum tape, it is possible to prevent the appearance of “cold bridges”.
When using the material, finishing can be any, the main thing is not to glue the wallpaper and not apply the plaster directly to the insulation.
It is not designed for such loads and over time will collapse.
The best option would be the installation of wooden or metal crates on top of the insulating layeron which drywall sheets are attached. After applying a primer on them, you can fix any finishing materials.
Novelty in the field of insulation are liquid insulation materials. In appearance, they are a paint that contains microscopic ceramic cavities that reflect heat. The advantage of the method is simplicity of application (the surface is simply painted over), hydro resistance. It is fair to say that this method is suitable as an auxiliary thermal insulation, however, the cold wall with this method of processing will become warmer to the touch.
Another advantage is the preservation of usable floor space.
Scope of application
At first glance, to insulate the apartment of an apartment building, it is enough to insulate the walls from the inside. However, this is not the case because Wall coverings are not the only source of heat loss.
- The cold also comes from the floors. This is especially true for residents of the first floor. If the floor is laid on the screed, you can use polystyrene as a heater. Another topical solution would be a floor heating system.To increase its efficiency and reduce electrical costs will help the installation of thin foil-insolone, which will prevent heat loss and redirect thermal energy back into the room.
- Non-insulated ceiling, especially bordering on unheated attic space, also causes a lower temperature in the rooms. Ideally, of course, it is better to warm the ceiling from the attic by updating the expanded clay sprinkling. However, if it is impossible to do this, then it is necessary to warm it from inside the apartment. A 5-cm layer of mineral wool will be enough for this, the insulation is sutured with drywall.
- Residents of the panel house often suffer from cold penetrating through worn interpanel seams - joints between the panels of the facades of houses. In such a situation, it is rational to contact the housing office with the requirement to update the joints on the street side. At the same time, it is possible to open the corner of the apartment from the inside to the full height, adjacent to the outer wall, to replace the gasket, having previously treated the seam with a hydrophobe. Upon completion of the work, the angle is restored along the reinforcing grid by means of plaster.
- Warming is often necessary from the face and access sides. If you received permission from the housing department, it is better to insulate the wall from the entrance side. Although this is quite a rare practice. For insulation of the wall bordering the landing, you can use any insulation - mineral wool, polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam. It is important to make sure that the temperature at the entrance complies with the established standards. It is important the presence of high-quality glazing, regularly working radiators.
To protect the end wall, a suitable heat insulation material is selected. It is also important to check the tightness of the joints between the windows and the wall, to make sure that the insulation of the reflux insulation is reliable.
Proper insulation of the walls inside the building involves the creation of a multi-layer "cake". The most important element will be a vapor barrier film. It is fixed to the wall with a slight overlap using waterproof tape.
The next point is the choice of material with good vapor permeability. Ideally, the vapor permeability of the insulation should be lower than the similar material characteristics of the exterior walls.
In this case, the condensate will be displayed outside, not inside the apartment.
If sticking sound and heat insulating material to a wall is meant, it is important to prevent air gaps between it and the wall surface. To do this, all existing cracks and irregularities of the wall surface must be eliminated. Glue on the insulation should be applied with a notched trowel, tightly pressing the material to the wall.
The correct scheme of cold wall insulation looks like this. - a heat-insulating material is applied to the wall, then a vapor barrier, after it a sheathing on which the finishing is mounted.
If space allows the room, in order to increase the noise and insulation of the room between the insulation and the cladding left a small air gap. In rooms with high air humidity, several other methods of insulation are used, for example, organizing a ventilated gap between the wall and insulation. Warming of the walls in the corner apartment is carried out according to the same schemes.
How to do it yourself?
Before insulating an apartment, it is helpful to find out the sources of heat loss. To do this, use a thermal imager. It is the places of maximum heat loss that should be insulated first.
Regardless of the type of insulation used, the process of thermal insulation of internal walls has common technological requirements and includes the following steps.
At this stage, insulators are selected, their required number and thickness are calculated. In addition to thermal insulation materials, you should purchase a vapor barrier film, wooden logs (process with an antiseptic) or metal profiles (must have anti-corrosion protection) for assembling the battens, as well as drywall, battens, paneling or plastic sheathing panels.
The preparation of the walls involves cleaning them from the previous decorative coating. The next step is the “restoration” of the wall. It is necessary to eliminate all irregularities, cracks and gaps.
The final stage of the preparatory work is the application of primer compositions in 2-3 layers. Their use provides antiseptic treatment of the wall and increase its adhesion.
Organization of the ventilation gap
This step should not be neglected, since it protects the wall from moisture penetration.
To create a ventilation gap on the wall are mounted wooden slats,the thickness of which must be at least 2 cm. Installation is carried out in 1 m increments, fixing by means of dowels. After that, several air vents are made in the wall to activate the ventilation gap. For this, small gaps, with a diameter of about 2 cm, are drilled in the walls. To protect them from the penetration of litter allows small metal mesh.
After that, the vapor barrier film is fixed to the casing in a tight fit.
Due to this, ventilation gaps are formed between it and the wall.
The frame is a system of metal profiles, the pitch of which is equal to the width of the insulation. For a more dense placement of the latter, the pitch of the frame profiles can be made even 1-1.5 cm narrower than the width of the insulation.
Installation of insulation
Polystyrene plates or layers of mineral wool are inserted between the bars of the batten. The space between the sheets of insulation is closed with special linings or thin pieces of the main insulation material.
Fixation of vapor barrier
On top of the insulation should be laid another vapor barrier layer. It can be fixed to a wooden crate with the help of a furniture stapler, to a metal one using a building tape (temporary fixation).
Usually performed using sheets of drywall, which are fixed to the profiles of the frame with self-tapping screws. Hats of the latter should be flush with the plasterboard surface or slightly buried.
At the joints of the sheets glued construction adhesive mesh. Further, the place of joints is puttied, the points of the caps of the self-tapping screws, after which the entire wall is covered with a putty.
After applying the finishing layer and grinding it with a special float, you can begin to finish the surface with facing materials.
Tips and tricks
When installing a wooden frame, it is necessary to pretreat logs with antiseptic compounds and fire retardants, which will reduce the fire hazard of wood and protect it from the destructive action of moisture.
If you need to drill holes for dowel-nails in a panel house, this can be done using a perforator with a pointy drill.
Grinding of plasterboard coated with a putty should be done in bright light. In this case, all the flaws will be noticeable.
When choosing a heat-insulating material, it is important to remember about its compatibility not only with decorative finishing, but also with wall material. So, for brick surfaces, foam polystyrene foam will be the best option, for concrete surfaces - extruded its version or any other insulation with a foil layer as a vapor barrier.
You will learn more about the insulation of the apartment in the following video.