Features of spring door closers
The spring closer for doors is the reliable device and is widely used at installation of entrance and interroom door groups. The product has high performance and is able to work without damage for a long time.
Features and Purpose
One of the main conditions for the correct operation of the door systems is the smooth running of the blade and the absence of a shock load on the hinges and the door frame. To solve the problem of soft and silent movement of the door will help install spring closer. The device allows you to choose the speed of closing the canvas and significantly reduces the wear rate of the door hardware.As a result, the door system maintains a presentable appearance throughout its life.
Installation of the door closer guarantees a significant reduction in the level of extraneous noise and significantly reduces the heat loss of the premises during the winter period. Due to the close fit of the canvas, it will be possible to get rid of drafts, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in heating costs and budget savings. The operation of the spring device is completely safe and silent, which allows installation of the device in the premises of any purpose, including residential and public spaces.
Products are highly resistant to aggressive environmental conditions, therefore, can be used not only for interior doors, but also be installed on the entrance groups. The instrument case is made of heat-resistant alloys, which allows the device to operate in the range from -45 to +70 degrees.
However, not all products are characterized by increased resistance to extreme temperatures, so when you buy a device, you must carefully read the accompanying documentation.But almost all models have a corrosion-resistant coating and can be used in conditions of high humidity.
Design and principle of operation
Structurally, the spring closer with a sliding pitch is presented in the form of a body, equipped with a working mechanism and connected with a lever lever type. The working mechanism is made in the form of a rigid spring, the compression of which is carried out due to the effect of the piston. The spring is placed in a hermetic case, which is filled with oil, and after compression begins to gradually expand. Oil enters the body through a network of hydraulic channels and provides a progressive return of the spring mechanism to its original position.
Changing the speed of closing the web is carried out using adjustment screws installed at the end of the body. When they are rotated, the size of the hydraulic channels changes, which leads to a slowdown or, conversely, an increase in the flow rate of the oil. It is the intensity of the flow of oil into the cylinder that determines how fast the door will close.
If necessary, you can tighten or loosen the screw, causing the door's travel speed to change immediately.
Devices designed for installation on the entrance groups are equipped with special valves that hold the door at a angle of 70 degrees until the door is completely closed. From about the 15th degree to the close, there is a pressing with a clap. This is necessary so that the canvas easily overcomes the resistance of the air and the door latch with a seal. In addition to the size of the cross section, the speed of movement of the door affects the viscosity of the oil in the working cylinder. This indicator is determined by factors such as external temperature, brand of oil and the duration of its use.
For example, at high temperature and low quality of oil its fluidity increases, and the resistance created by it decreases. With a decrease in temperature, as with long-used oil, its viscosity increases significantly and leads to an increase in resistance. As a result, the door begins to move more slowly and requires adjustment of the door closer. This feature of spring closers obliges to timely adjust the door travel speed at least twice during the year.
One of the fundamental characteristics of the classification of spring models is the place of installation of the device. In total, according to this criterion, three types of devices are distinguished.
- Closer for outdoor installation. Models are designed for top installation and are considered representatives of the budget group of devices. The device consists of two blocks connected by articulated levers, one of which is mounted on the door, and the second - on the box. All exterior models are covered with anti-corrosion composition and are highly resistant to extreme temperatures.
- Device for flush mounting in the door frame. Models suggest the presence in the frame of a special cavity, designed to accommodate the housing of the device. The lever is mounted on the upper part of the door. There are also reverse models when the working unit is installed at the end of the door leaf, and the lever is fixed on the joint. However, due to the complexity of installation, such devices are not widespread.
- Models for flush mounting in the floor. Closers are designed for heavy fabrics and can be used in warehouses and industrial plants. In addition, the design of hidden closers allows you to install them on the pendulum doors, which greatly expands the scope of application and allows you to operate them in public spaces and shopping centers.
Criterias of choice
One of the important parameters by which the closer is selected is its power. When calculating it, first of all, they are guided by the size and weight of the door leaf. The following selection criteria are the external conditions and the intensity of the flow of people through the doors. The power of spring closers is regulated by the European standard EN-1154, according to which there is a dependence of the class on the power: the higher the class of the device, the higher the power it has.
For example, for large armored doors, it is necessary to choose models of the highest grade EN-7, while for interior and exterior apartment canvases, a product of grade 3-5 will be quite suitable.
However, with the additional influence of external factors, the class should be chosen with a margin. Such negative factors can be strong side winds that blow for most of the year and high permeability.
In addition, the closer should be purchased with a slightly higher class if there are non-standard canvases. For example, with a weight corresponding to the third class, but with a door height of 2.5 meters, you should buy a fourth or even fifth class closer.This will ensure the necessary margin of safety and extend the life of the device. However, if there are no corresponding indications for this, it is not worth purchasing a higher class of closers either. This is due to the fact that powerful models installed on a light plastic door or wicket will create a heavy load on the fittings and cause its rapid wear and failure.
The correct choice, adjustment and timely adjustment of the spring closers will significantly prolong the service life of the device and make its use simple and convenient.
In the next video you will find a review of the spring closer "Hercules" from the brand Luighi Aldeghi.