Installation of door closer: the main stages and everything you need
Entrance doors in private homes and organizations are recommended to equip with closers. But these devices, which allow us to conveniently use the door, are quite diverse. It is necessary to choose and put them especially carefully.
Features of the choice of door closer
The closer both to the inner and outer part of the door should provide automatic cover of the sash. The simplest type of device is oil, which works by moving the fluid under the pressure of a spring. When the door is opened, the spring is compressed. As soon as the handle is released, it will open and gently slam the sash.
But the simplest devices are now used very rarely. More modern designs are often based on a toothed rack. This type of force transmission ensures the most smooth movement of the spring.However, it cannot be applied in devices with sliding channels. In the cam system, a special cam, made of a steel profile, similar in shape to the heart, must transmit energy.
Changing the profile, achieve a certain intensity of compression. This ensures that the flap closes comfortably. When selecting a door closer on a street door, one should think first of all about the moment of inertia. This indicator is directly related to the weight and width of the door body, is reflected in the standard EN 1154. Products classified as EN1, can serve only the interior door, the lightest.
If it is necessary to put a closer on the steel input structure, then it is necessary to comply with the class EN7. Important: along with closers of a strictly defined level, there are also adjustable elements. Their markings begin with the least effort of closure, and the hyphenation indicates the highest level. Full information on this subject can be obtained in the tables provided in the technical documentation.
It is very important and exactly how torque is transmitted. If a lever is used for this purpose, it is made from a pair of connected axes. When the flap opens, these axes are bent in a certain place.By itself, such a device is quite strong and can last for a long time. But a completely open mechanism is very easily damaged by hooligans.
Systems with a moving channel are distinguished by the fact that the free edge of the lever moves along a special notch. To reach the lever itself is problematic, which complicates the actions of vandals. But it takes more effort to open the doors. The use of a cam transmission apparatus helps to compensate for the difficulty in moving. It is this one that makes it possible to more effectively transmit kinetic energy.
Floor structures, as their name clearly indicates, are placed in the floor. To get to these elements, wishing to break something is almost impossible. If the sash is opened in two directions, it will be put on the closer spindle. If only one - the device is located near the canvas. It is these types of closers are widely used on the doors of stores and similar institutions.
Frame device in its action differs little from the floor. However, the attachment point is different.As for mounting options, there is a known overhead scheme and three hidden versions. The closer may be hiding:
- in the floor;
- in the frame;
- in the canvas door.
On a plastic door, as on a wooden door, you usually need to choose relatively weak door closers. But if the design is large, and the sash is therefore heavy, you will have to install a more powerful device. Important: when the opening effort is not enough, it is recommended to mount two devices. The main thing is that their action is fully synchronized. The speed with which the device closes the door is not normalized by standards and so far there are not even strict numbers.
It is necessary to observe how quickly the web closes completely. At the fire door, the closing should take place as quickly as possible, so that smoke can not be sucked in and fire spreads. And the smallest possible speed is required where there is:
- Small children;
- elderly people;
- those who are poorly oriented in the surrounding reality (people with disabilities and seriously ill patients);
The rate of slamming characterizes how quickly the web passes the last section of its path during closing.This parameter is only taken into account when a snap-type lock is installed. But since it is not always known where it will be placed, it is better to get acquainted with this indicator when buying a door closer. In public places, unlike in a private house, the function of delayed opening is significant. Sooner or later, individual visitors will try to open the door too hard - and then braking with the help of a door closer will prevent the canvas from hitting the wall.
Stopping the sash in the open position is important mainly in medical and other similar organizations. When carrying a stretcher, there is no need to somehow support the canvas additionally. Sometimes they are interested in a similar function in warehouses. There, too, there is a need to carry or carry heavy and uncomfortable loads without any problems. An alternative solution is often a door with a delayed closure.
If the closer is put on the front door, then in most regions of Russia it must be thermally stable (that is, calculated for temperatures from —35 to 70 degrees). Only in the coldest places does it make sense to buy frost-resistant structures capable of operating at –45 degrees.Indoor closers are placed inside the premises, which will not be able to operate at temperatures below –10 and above + 40. The temperature range is determined by the type of oil inside the mechanism.
In addition to thermal characteristics, it is necessary to take into account the direction to which the door will open. The closer can move it left, right or in both directions. It is recommended to choose universal constructions more often, especially since they can be reconfigured if the path to the opening of the web suddenly changes. Differences may also be related to the type of assembly of the device. Fully sealed devices are relatively inexpensive - but if oil leaks out of them or another defect arises, it makes no sense to recall repairs.
It is recommended to always find out what the resource of a particular unit. Reputable manufacturers supply closers that can survive millions of door closures. But, of course, this technical excellence is fully paid by the consumer. Another point that is partly related to the previous one is the warranty. For those firms that give a guarantee of less than 12 months, there is no point in buying closers.
Other parameters are closely related to the type of door installed. So, if it is interroom and made entirely of PVC, there are enough closers designed for EN1 effort. Fully glazed constructions are already equipped with products on EN2. And if a canvas of solid wood is chosen, the 4th or 5th grade is needed. For your information: it is not recommended to install excessively powerful devices - this will lead to accelerated wear of the loops and will significantly complicate life.
On the aluminum arched door mainly put floor closers. In this case, the response contours are mounted in the threshold. Special upper rollers usually become closers for the compartment door. They replace the standard roller units. For your information: there is no need to change the lower rollers.
Stages of installation on the door
We develop the scheme
Most often there is a need to install door closers on external doors. Usually, the scheme is thought out in such a way that the body is in the room. But for models with increased resistance to cold it does not matter. The scheme should note what diameter fasteners will be required. This will allow you to more accurately select the door closer and the drill to install it.If necessary, you should consult with professionals. When the door opens in the direction of the door closer, the body is put on the canvas. But the lever complex is located on the frame. A different approach is required if the door is to be opened outwards from the leading node. Then the blocks are swapped. Sliding channel will have to put on the door body, and the main part of the device - on the jamb.
Choosing mounting options
Installing invoice door closer, perform the following actions:
- determination of mounting position;
- the choice of outdoor (option - internal) location;
- determining the direction to which the device should open the door;
- attachment of the wiring diagram accompanying each officially supplied product to the canvas and the jamb.
In the last step, mark where the holes will be made. You can make neat marks even through a sheet of paper. The necessary holes for fasteners are drilled with a drill. A template always contains a complete set of installation methods. It shows whether the door closer will be placed on the right or left door, whether it will swing open in or out.
Additionally, the pattern will know which categories of doors can be placed on the door. They also show in which cases the attachment points can be changed. Selecting each option with a color or a dotted line will help not to get confused. Important: if the door is made of aluminum or thin steel, you will have to put special fasteners - the so-called bonki. They help to avoid material damage where they are attached.
When the marks are completed with the help of the scheme and the template, the closer body and the lever or bar are fixed on the canvas (box) with self-tapping screws. On the case fix the second segment of the lever. After that, you can already connect the lever, forming a kind of "knee". But not always this solution allows you to complete the task. Alternative approaches are needed when working with a wicket or an unusual door.
In this situation, sometimes schemes with parallel installation on a plate or with mounting angles are chosen. The role of the corners - to help, if you can not fix the lever on the surface of the box. In some cases, the case closers are placed on the corner element located above the upper slope. In this case, the levers are pressed to the canvas.In another embodiment, a plate is placed on the door, leading it to the top edge.
Then the body is already fixed on this plate. The lever in this embodiment is usually put on the door frame. To maximize the area of the slope, the body is attached to the canvas in the usual way. Next, the lever is attached to the mounting plate. There is another way: with it, the plate is placed on the box, the case is mounted, and the lever element is fixed on the canvas.
How to install: walkthrough
But just choose one or another approach to the installation of the closer is not enough. Be sure to perform a strict sequence of work. To do it right with your own hands, the template is attached to the canvas with thin tape. Then they take the center punch and mark out the middle points of the holes. Now you can put the case using standard hardware. The accuracy of the installation is determined by looking at the location of the adjustment screws. Next comes the turn to mount the lever system. Standard rules stipulate that it should be fixed on the side opposite to the door. In some cases, the joint system is supplied already assembled.Then, at the time of operation, the hinge is pulled out - it is only necessary then to put it in its place.
Now it is necessary to fix the segment that is not subject to adjustment - the knee. To hang it in the air at the exact place, use the axis of the closer. The fixing is made with a nut, tightened with a wrench. Important: when the closer is mounted to eliminate noise, the knee is fixed according to the instructions in only one way - at an angle of 90 degrees to the door. In this case, the lever is placed at the same angle to the canvas, and it is necessary to connect the parts only after the door is completely closed.
Otherwise they do it when in the first place there is a reinforced clamp of the web. In this case, the canvas itself is supplied with a sealant or a latch, and the rigid lever is mounted at an angle of 90 degrees to the door. The knee is made adjustable, but it is necessary to ensure that its length allows the mechanism to work normally. This approach will help increase the speed of the final slam. End assembly by tying two segments with a hinge.
Even if the closers are installed according to all the rules, sometimes you have to interfere in their work. But in order to have such a need less often, it is necessary to follow the elementary rules. The device itself must close the door - this is its main vocation.If the closing speed is too high or too low, it is not necessary to help or interfere with the canvas. In such cases, the adjustment mechanism.
Do not abuse the ability of the door to remain in the open position. Moreover, you can not put a variety of extra items under the canvas. And also do not hang on the door, use it for skiing. Children like this kind of entertainment - and they need to be carefully monitored. Having noticed that the device works somehow incorrectly, it is necessary to see if oil drips have appeared.
In this case, the adjustment of the internal part of the mechanism should still be entrusted to professionals. There is a powerful spring, the handling of which requires caution. But to adjust the speed of work is quite possible - for this you need to tighten or loosen the special screws. Caution: it is impossible to completely remove them, this may cause depressurization of the door closer. Before performing this work, it is necessary to check the technical documentation once again, then the risk will be minimal.
Repair and replacement
Insignificant violation of tightness of closers is eliminated due to use of sealants.But when the channel through which the oil leaves is very large, this technique will not help. Moreover, it is useless if the working fluid has drained 100%. Then it remains only to replace the door closer completely. With a weak tank filling, you will have to add synthetic automotive oils or liquids for shock absorbers (they are poured through special valves).
You can repair the barbell with your own hands:
- clean up traces of corrosion and treat with insulating mixtures;
- make breaks and minor cracks (then sand the seams);
- carefully align the curved or curved places, making sure that the lever remains intact.
How to install a door closer with your own hands, see the next video.