Closers for entrance doors: the subtleties of choice, installation and operation
Almost every modern entrance door, which is installed in the office of a company or enterprise, has special devices - closers. They allow the door to close gently, protecting the fittings, the lock and the door leaf itself from constant shocks and mechanical damage.
Thanks to this device, the doors will always be carefully closed, even if they are left open. Let's take a closer look at this device. What to look for when buying a product, how to install it correctly?
There are various versions of door closers, which differ in the type of device and power, as a result, they can be installed on the door leaf with a light construction or on heavy metal doors.
In the structure of the door closer there is a special lever and the body itself, in which the mechanism is placed. Thanks to this element, the doors are automatically closed. The main mechanism is a powerful spring, which is compressed under the action of a piston. Often this spring is steel and placed in a special capsule. The capsule is filled with special oil.
Modern models of doors have a special valve on the additional argument, which ensures their adherence. This effect is observed when the angle of an open door is approximately 70 degrees until the door is completely closed. In addition, if the door leaf is almost closed (the angle is about 15 degrees), there is an acceleration of the movement of the sash, with the result that the doors are very tightly closed. This design feature allows the door closer to cope with the effort of latches installed on the doors, and to overcome the air resistance that is observed in the process of closing the sash.
On sale you can also find devices with additional features and blocking the movement of the door. This design minimizes the risk of spontaneous closing of the door. This function will be relevant when it is necessary that the doors are open. In this case, you need to open the door at least 90 degrees, it will be in a locked position until it is pushed to close. The complete set of the closer will allow a shutter to be closed smoothly and silently.
The principle of operation of the door closer for entrance doors is as follows: when the doors open, the gear begins to rotate, which transfers force to the rack. As mentioned above, the transmission is in a special case, which was filled with oil. The rail, passing the movement of the piston, thereby pushes the spring, squeezing it to a certain size.
In the process of piston movement, the oil, which is in the middle of the capsule, begins to flow from one compartment to another, due to which additional resistance is observed, which improves the compression of the elastic element. As a result of this, the door leaf will move slowly.
As soon as you let go of the sash, the external pressure ceased, the spring begins to open.Since the spring mechanism is closely interconnected with the piston, it moves back. The oil also begins to move in the opposite direction, providing additional resistance, which slows down the door closing process even more.
Adjustment of the door closer is made by scrolling the screws located on the front side of the case. By rotating the screws, you can change the cross-section of the channels, as a result, the rate of oil flow will change, the door leaf will close more slowly or faster.
Types and subtleties of choice
Depending on the method and place where the door closer will be placed, there are several types of these devices.
- Upper - located in the upper part of the sash. They belong to the universal fixtures, placed on a variety of doors.
- Outdoor - they are mounted on the bottom of the door leaf or on the floor. Often installed on glass doors, because at the same time perform the function of loops.
- Hidden - Mounted in the process of manufacturing doors. They are most often used for interior doors.
To choose the right closer, you need to know if this device can withstand a lot of weight.For example, floor devices can easily withstand a mass of up to 300 kilograms, so they will be the best option for a heavy iron door.
Due to the fact that hidden closers are placed in the front part of either the door leaf or the door jamb, they are invisible, which is very important if such a device is used for interior doors.
It is quite difficult to choose a suitable closer. For example, if in terms of dimensions it is better to install one design, and in terms of weight another one will do, then opt for a more powerful model. When the doors are different original design, then it is better to choose closers with a margin of safety.
You should not get powerful fixtures for wooden light doors, because a very powerful element will provoke a rapid wear of fasteners.
To accurately determine the type of mechanism that is used in the closer, you can familiarize yourself with the data in a special table. It shows the equivalents of class closers and the main characteristics of the valves. If you get a closer on a metal door leaf, then pay attention,that the brake was included.
In order to properly select such a door element, it is necessary to take into account the external conditions of its operation. A very important factor is the temperature at which the closer can work. This is very important for spring devices that are installed on street doors. If the device does not have certain parameters, then problems may arise with the work of the closer when the ambient temperature rises sharply, or, conversely, decreases.
Please note that specialized door types require the installation of certain closers containing electromagnetic or electro-hydraulic elements. Such electrical devices must possess documents that confirm the high quality of the product.
If you fix the door closer on the door to the entrance, then you should look at the options that have special anti-vandal protection. An important component of these types of devices is a safety valve and a housing made of impact-resistant material.
When purchasing a closer for entrance doors, pay attention to the brand.Trust only proven manufacturers who care about the quality of their products. It would be worthwhile to study customer reviews that already use one or another model from a certain manufacturer company. This will help you make the right choice.
Advantages and disadvantages
The demand for various models of closers is caused by a number of advantages.
- They protect the door leaf from impact when the doors open and close.
- Allows you to extend the period of operation of a variety of sliding systems that are installed on the doors, thanks to the soft and neat movement of the door leaf.
- There is a tight fixation, that is, the sash is latched in the process of closing.
- You can adjust the speed of movement of the sash, creating the best option closure.
- This design is safe for young children who love to fool around with the doors.
The disadvantages of such products can be attributed rather time-consuming process of installation and regulation of this device. Such systems can be quite expensive if there are additional features and capabilities.
In order to install a closer, you need to check that high-quality door canopies are placed, and the shutter itself is located exactly, without distortions.
Installation of such devices can be carried out either on the door frame itself, or inside. Often, a complete scheme for its installation and detailed instructions on how to adjust it are provided with the closer. Since the dimensions of the scheme correspond to the parameters of the sash, it must be attached to the door leaf itself, using scotch tape. Because of this, it will be very convenient to mark the places for the holes.
Carefully following the instructions, you need to secure the case of this device.
After you have fixed the mechanism, proceed to the mounting of the lever sliding thrust. It contains two halves, connected to each other, using a thread. The length of the lever must be adjusted, taking into account the opening angle of the sash 90 degrees. If you did everything right, then the doors will close gradually and very quietly.
After the closer has been installed, it is necessary to adjust it. This process is carried out with screws at various stages:
- look at the main movement of the sash;
- finishing-blending is the process of bringing the door leaf to full closure, which begins at an angle of 15-20 degrees before directly closing the sash.
First, set the opening angle of the sash. Using the screw, choose a suitable position in 90 or 180 degrees. Then adjust the speed at which the shutter will close, scrolling the second screw. You need to open the door at the selected angle and release. By rotating the second screw, you can adjust the uniform movement and at the last degrees there appears a raft.
Keep in mind that in the process of adjusting the closer, you should not put a lot of effort, rotating the screw. Even turning the screw a quarter, you will notice how significantly the movement of the sash has slowed. Please note that if you have installed the closer correctly, then you will have to adjust it only when the temperature of the environment changes. If you are having difficulty installing and adjusting the door closer, then it is better to seek help from specialists.
Recommendations for use
To close the door for you served for a very long time, follow the simple guidelines:
- no special effort is needed to close the sash quickly;
- Do not prop up or brake the door during the closing process;
- do not swing the door leaf, do not pull the lever of this device.
Otherwise, you can disable the gear seals on the doors, break the piston or gears.
Please note that the repair of such a device will cost quite expensive.
If you need the doors to be very often open, for example, when cleaning is carried out, then it is better to purchase a model of a door closer, characterized by the ability to hold the sash in the open position. Due to this, the doors can be left open for a certain period of time. An additional lever is present in the structure of such a device, which stops the flow of oil, as a result of which the spring stops expanding and the flaps are open.
Carefully approach the choice of closers for entrance doors, then this mechanism will serve you for a very long time, you will not have problems with opening and closing the valves.
About what you need to know when buying and installing a door closer, see the following video.