Types and ways of finishing doorways
Types and methods of finishing doorways are crucial for interior decoration. This detail occupies a significant part of the wall and draws attention to itself: sometimes beauty, and sometimes irrelevance in the overall interior composition. Therefore, it is important to properly arrange the doorway during the repair, choosing the finish with taste and intelligence.
By themselves, doorways have virtually no distinctive features. They are only a place to install interior doors, and perform a transit function on the border of rooms in the room.However, the nature of the construction of a dwelling directly affects the features of the doorways.
In the apartment, the appearance and functional load on the openings depend on the type of construction:
- Old Fund and "Stalin". These are apartments from the times of pre-revolutionary construction and the Soviet period of the 30-50s of the last century. Their distinctive feature is good quality, large dimensions, high ceilings, wide openings. They require custom size door panels and high-quality decorative trim. A common flaw in the interior of such an apartment is that the doorway is too low in relation to the ceiling height. It can be leveled using transom. This is an artificial increase in the height of the door and opening by installing a wooden panel over the opening in the color of the door or glass window;
- "Khrushchev" and communal apartments. On the contrary, they are distinguished by small dimensions, narrow doorways with a small thickness of walls, crampedness. They are actual design of the opening without the door leaf, the use of design techniques to increase the space, installation in the opening of folding and sliding doors or hidden structures;
- Typical modern buildings. Their advantage is that the doorways correspond to GOST, are universal in width and height. They are convenient to draw with the help of doors of different types or even without them.
In a private house at the doorway more features. On the arch of the opening, the static elements of the structure (ceiling, second floor, roof) give a significant load.
It literally helps to keep the floor of the upper floor or the ceiling of the house, so the following methods of decoration and reinforcement of doorways are often used:
- An important element is the jumper (upper bar). It provides reinforcement and strengthening of the arch, creates the opening itself (upper part), serves as the basis for the ceiling;
- The doorway is built as part of the wall, therefore it is made of the same materials as it, but it can be laid from others. For example, in a wooden house it can be brick or block, and vice versa;
- Different types of doors are installed in the opening, which allow to isolate functional zones from each other and some traumatic zones from small children.
An opening is considered “ideal” if:
- length from one slope to another remains the same at any point;
- two slopes are strictly parallel lines;
- thickness is uniform around the perimeter of the arch;
- the distance from the floor to the lintel is the same anywhere in the measurement;
- there is no angle of inclination of the floor surface under the opening.
What should be for interior doors?
The norms of SNiP regulate only the height and minimum width for different types of rooms in the room, and the thickness refers to the secondary characteristics and is not regulated by building codes.
Virtually any doorway is suitable for installing interior doors. An exception is the case when a partition was independently installed inside the room. It is not a full-fledged wall, especially if it is a single sheet of fiberboard, chipboard or plywood, and will not sustain the weight of the door leaf. In other cases, you just need to choose the right type of door in accordance with the characteristics of the room and its operational status.
So, openings of loose materials are suitable for sliding structures with low weight, but are not suitable for installing a metal door, in which the box mount weighs more than all the components of sliding doors.
Varieties of doors that are installed in the opening:
- Swing. With the standard width of the openings, single doors are used, and for wide ones, one and a half doors (up to 120 cm) or double doors (from 120 cm) are suitable. The constructions of the two valves have a large weight, so they need to be used in openings of strong materials. Such doors are tightly closed, therefore they are universal, they are used both for children's rooms, and in the bathroom for good tightness, both in the kitchen and in the bedroom to ensure comfort and silence. To install hinged doors that open to themselves, the distance from the opening to the nearest wall must be at least one meter;
- Retractable and compartment. Such doors “walk” along the monorail on gel rollers. Suitable for doorways of different widths, and the thickness does not matter, because the door shield rolls left or right. Designed for rooms where reinforced insulation is not needed, and there is a place to roll the door to the side;
- Cassette. The optimal solution for Khrushchev and small rooms. The door in the open state does not occupy space at all - it rolls back into a special slot in the wall.Can be installed even with a small thickness of the opening;
- Folding. These are book-doors (of two lamella) and accordion (3 or more lamella), which are folded according to the principle of accordion bellows, for which they received their name. They have a low own weight, so they are suitable for openings of drywall, narrow arches and rooms in which space saving comes first. Good protection from odors, but sound insulation and heat insulation is worse than the swing.
Standard and “correct” is a classic rectangular doorway. In typical buildings, the parameters of width and height regulate SNiP and GOST, while for different rooms these parameters differ. The thickness does not have strictly regulated parameters.
The height of the doorway varies in the range of 188–210 cm. It is considered optimal for the passage of a person with average height or slightly above the average and harmoniously with the ceiling height from 270 to 470 cm.
The width depends on the location of the doorway. If it is intended for an entrance door, the width will be equal to 80 plus or minus a few centimeters. It is important to accurately measure when choosing a door.If it is a doorway at the entrance to the bathroom, toilet, adjacent bathroom, kitchen, the average width is 60 or 65 cm. In the pantry, the door can be already 55 cm. In the rest of the rooms (bedrooms, classrooms, children’s) the width of the doorway 65 to 80 cm.
But not always and not everywhere openings have standard forms and parameters, or design features do not allow them to remain so.
Often increase the aisles in the living room, hall, large kitchen or other room of a large area. In this case, the height can change at several points by changing the shape of the upper edge of the opening (arched or figured) to 250-260 cm, or to 300, but already by using a transom, which does not enlarge the opening itself, but only visually pulls it out.
The width can be increased almost without restrictions, if the design features of the dwelling allow to dismantle part of the wall or the entire wall. As a rule, such changes need to be settled in the appropriate instances, but the result is worth it. A large cassette or telescopic door at the entrance to the living room or kitchen looks luxurious and modern.
A slight increase in width from 80 to 120 cm is a doorway for one-and-a-half doors. From 120 cm to 160 - parameters for the installation of massive double structures.Over 160 cm - the basis for the installation of sliding doors of three or more canvases.
You will learn more about how to increase the doorway in width and height for the finished door block by watching the following video.
Types of finishing doorways for the subsequent installation of doors, and without it, are divided into two main processes: the "rough" finish and the "front" or decorative.
Rough finishing is necessary regardless of whether the repair is done by hand, or it is carried out by professionals.
- Preparation of openings and slopes for decoration;
- Alignment of the surface of the walls. In the brickwork or wall of foam blocks, there are often gaps and irregularities that must be eliminated before embarking on the facial finish;
- Filling the empty spaces between the decorative layer and the masonry, which improves the insulating properties of interior doors (insulation, heat insulation, tightness). If the opening is perfectly smooth and trimmed with high-quality materials, you can not use the seal in the future, and the threshold when using interior doors is better set on a flat floor surface.
When the rough finish consistently used:
- Priming. The priming agents level and improve the absorbency of the surfaces of the door opening. They are necessary for a good "grip" of the following "layers" of decoration with the wall. In addition, the primer prevents the formation of fungi and mold;
- Panels of foam or plasterboard. It is not necessary to use if the surface of the opening is sufficiently smooth and the room does not need to be warmed. But their installation is necessary in cold apartments on the lower floors and in a private wooden or brick house;
- Plaster. As a rule, it is used immediately after the primer, if there is no drywall, because with its help it is convenient to level the surfaces;
- Reinforcement corners or mesh. It seems to many that it is not necessary to make such a complex rough layer, but this device is able to protect the corners of the doorways from chipping and destruction. They are made of metal, often aluminum, ready corner. They have insignificant weight, size and price, but are of great importance for the preservation of the beautiful appearance of the openings;
- Spackling compounds. They are necessary for the final alignment of the surface of the slope after the installation of the corners. However, by itself, the putty falls on an uneven layer; after drying, it must be “sanded” with fine-grained sandpaper;
- Primer. The second layer of application of the soil is not needed in all cases. For example, if the decorative finish will be done by plating (mounted into the wall with dowels and screws), it can be missed, and if the materials are stuck, it will not be superfluous to improve adhesion of adhesives to the surface of the slopes.
The choice of decoration depends on whether there is a door in the doorway, or whether this space is free.
In the first case, there are fewer design options, since the finish should overlap with the color and texture of the door leaf, and after installing the door, it is necessary to fix the slopes. If the width of the doorway is small, then it can be improved by dobori or doborniki - thin wooden strips in the color of the door or door lining. They are almost imperceptible and make up a whole with the door panel at first glance.It is neat, practical and convenient if the interior design does not require a more original solution.
You can see more clearly the whole process of the rough finishing of the door slopes in the next video.
Other types of finishes can be divided into several groups according to the type of execution.
It is used over plaster, drywall, fiberboard. Treats to simple technicians performed by, does not demand the help of professionals and big expenses. Allows you to arrange a doorway in the color of the walls, if the interior is dominated by classic or minimalist directions, or create an interesting decor. For example, the optical illusion, imitation of arches of different shapes.
Different types of paints are used:
- Acrylic. Suitable for adding to plaster to obtain a uniform color simultaneously with the finish. Gives a velvety "matte" coating. It is not resistant to wet cleaning, therefore it requires treatment with a colorless primer or PVA solution;
- Water emulsion. Used as acrylic. In white color it goes well with colors of different shades;
- latex formulations. They have less effect of satin, dullness, and they are resistant to wet cleaning.The color should be purchased ready, because the base white "eats" the brightness of the colorings;
- Alkyd, oil, enamel. For a more durable, moisture resistant, glossy finish. The downside to using one is a strong chemical smell.
This way you can create the most original decor, since you can glue absolutely any material, both in whole fragments and in small details.
For pasting use:
- Wallpaper. The easiest and budget option is to arrange the opening as a continuation of the wall with washable vinyl wallpaper. This gives integrity to the room, and is especially convenient when the door is not used in the opening. Well combined wallpaper with plastic curtains of various kinds;
- Ceramic tile. Beautiful tiled slopes perfectly harmonize with the interiors of the apartments in the historical style, especially if they have other ceramics details (fireplace, "apron" above the stove in the kitchen, floors, large vases, partial decoration of the walls or floor). Laying tiles does not require great professionalism, but little experience is needed. It is glued to construction glue,and gaps at the joints, if necessary, are treated with transparent sealants or grout.
- Mosaic. One of the most interesting types of tiles is mosaic. To do this, you can use both a ready-made set, and a marriage in the form of fragments. The formation of the picture depends only on the fantasy of the author. Then the finish will be not only original, but also cheap;
- Porcelain tiles. A more expensive, but different quality alternative to tile. Stoneware is stronger, easier to cut, it is dyed throughout the thickness of the plates, unlike tiles, so chipped will not be as noticeable, easy to clean, looks like a natural material. It is best to combine porcelain in color with other elements of the interior: flooring, baseboard, doors. It is glued in the same way as a tile to building glue with the subsequent processing of joints;
- Decorative rock. It refers to the rarely used materials in the design, since it does not easily fit into the interior and is often inappropriate. But in suitable interiors it can become a highlight in the house, because with the help of decorative stone you can imitate real masonry from natural coarse materials.In addition to the attractive appearance, the stone has a number of other advantages: it is eco-friendly, it is not prone to chipping and mechanical damage, it can be easily washed and cleaned, fixed with all the same construction glue. The disadvantages include the high cost of the material.
It is very convenient to use the casing for finishing the openings, since sheets of material cover large areas of surfaces at once, there is no need to bother with adhesives and waste time on subsequent processing of joints and seams. However, the corners of the openings must be sheathed especially carefully so that they do not have to be covered with corners.
- MDF. Easy, budget, convenient to handle material. Provides a durable and aesthetic finish with good performance. MDF can be glued and painted repeatedly. Helps strengthen the insulation performance of doors;
- Chipboard and chipboard. A practical and cost-effective solution that helps without additional efforts (putty, primer, leveling the surface) to finish doorways that are in a deplorable state. Laminated chipboard while it already has a finished decorative coating and does not need processing.An important nuance is that it is not necessary to finish with this hydrophobic material passages to rooms with high humidity;
- Laminate. With qualities similar to MDF, the laminate has a more aesthetic appearance. It costs an order of magnitude more expensive, but its wear-resistant characteristics are higher. The main rule when choosing a laminate - the minimum presence of formaldehyde in the composition;
- Plastic. It is appropriate in the design of openings with plastic doors, at the entrance to the kitchen, which requires frequent cleaning, and to the bathroom, where there is always a higher humidity. Plastic is not afraid of shocks, water, household chemicals, but it may become cloudy over time;
- Siding Gives the opportunity to make the finish unusual. For example, use aluminum or brass siding (panels) in finishing openings in a room with a high-tech interior (hi-tech, techno, minimalism). It is well combined with plastic, glossy surfaces, chrome elements. Durable, durable and resistant to moisture. It comes from different materials, from wood to PVC;
- Drywall Plasterboard is considered universal because it is located on the border between the draft and the decorative look.It can be used as an intermediate layer for leveling the surface and improving heat and sound insulation, and can be mounted as an independent material, which is the final step of finishing the doorway. It is easily fed to the processing and gives ample opportunities in the design of the openings.
How to sheathe drywall?
You can finish the plasterboard (GCR) with your own hands, without the participation of professionals, and this is one of its important advantages. Among other things, it has other distinctive characteristics: low weight, economy, durability, flexibility of processing, versatility.
Plasterboard plating is required when the doorway is uneven, the surface of the slopes with hollows and protrusions, or through the opening pass the cables and need to hide them.
The cladding involves the installation of a frame made of PVC, wooden or metal profiles.
The work happens in stages:
- Treat the work surface with priming compound from the formation of fungi, mold and condensate;
- Make accurate measurements of the length of the profile sections required for the formation of the frame. Measurements are made taking into account the joints on the jumper;
- Cut off profile fragments with a grinder or hacksaw.Attach to the surface and mark the edges. If there are no holes in the profile, drill them to the size of the screws;
- Along the edge of the opening make a hole punch under the dowels, insert the dowels. You can hammer them with light tapping of a rubber hammer;
- Attach the profile with the holes to the dowels, fix it with screws using a screwdriver. If the opening is wide, use screeds to firmly fix the frame. If necessary, voids are filled with insulation - mineral wool;
- Cut GKL exactly the size of the opening. Cutting taking into account the junction of the sheets in the upper part. That is, from the height of the side you need to take away the thickness of the sheet GCR;
- Sheets of drywall fasten with screws to the profile. To make the holes neat, they are recommended to be pre-marked and drilled at the same distance of 15-20 cm;
- When using the decorative design of drywall, the joints with the wall on the sides are finished with reinforcing corners. You also need to prime the surface before and after applying the putty.
The second method of finishing drywall - cool. It is easier to perform and more suitable for beginners. The sequence of actions is the same, except for the work with the profile.Drywall is glued to the primed wall. Glue construction, on a plaster basis.
How to transfer?
All the same universal drywall is used in a more complex procedure - the transfer of the doorway from one place to another. The transfer means that in the old place the doorway needs to be repaired, and in the new one it must be punched and formed.
If the technical side of the issue is clear, and for implementation it is possible to hire a brigade of workers, which will relieve from headaches in the repair process, then from a legal point of view, everything is a little more complicated.
The transfer of the doorway is considered a change in the layout of the apartment, therefore, requires the official permission of the relevant authorities.
Mandatory preparation procedures:
- Conducting technical inspection by design engineers. If the operational condition of the premises allows making a punching of a new opening in the supporting structure, a corresponding technical conclusion is issued. Permission to change the curtain structure is much easier to obtain;
- The organization accredited for this type of activity fulfills the project and work plan. The project takes into account the standards for the size of the future opening, materials, and the timing of the work.Then the project is submitted for approval to the housing inspection;
- When the work is completed, it is necessary to coordinate the changes made to the housing inspection. If the opening meets all standards and requirements of GOST and SNiP, changes are made to the technical passport of the room.
Technical work consists of two stages. At first, you need to sew the old opening. To do this, dismantle the door, box, threshold, slopes. In the vacated doorway is mounted frame for plating. Its design should take into account that it is not the walls that are sheathed, but the opening is completely closed.
Then all the gaps and irregularities are puttied, the putty is ground and the surface is ready for decorative finishing. Inside the opening can be filled with insulation, which will also improve sound insulation.
Suitable for filling materials that are not subject to destruction and rotting.
The second stage is more complex and is performed sequentially:
- Markup doorway. It must exactly match the figures in the project, taking into account the thickness of the finish;
- Drilling or punching a doorway. The first option for thin walls. It is carried out with a concrete drill to avoid unnecessary cracks from jackhammers or concrete breakers. The second for thick walls that do not drill through.It is recommended not to break out the entire piece of the wall at once, but to cut it into small fragments and take it to the floor. So the coating will not suffer, and the opening will be as smooth as possible, and there will be no damage in the wall;
- Installation of a metal frame to strengthen the opening. Not a required step;
- Rough finish, from preparatory primer to final primer;
- Mounting frame for plating, if necessary;
- Decorative trim.
Successful examples and options
When making a doorway, it is important to use proven design techniques:
- Making a smooth transition from room to room using the same materials and shades that in the decoration of the walls. This will make the passage one with the wall and the room and almost imperceptible;
- The opposite technique - focusing attention. To do this, you can use contrasting colors in the decoration or unusual textures: decorative and flexible stone, plasterboard mosaic, textured plaster, plaster, stucco;
- Unusual doors. For example, with stained glass inserts, "stable", "accordion";
- The decoration of the doorway curtains made of plastic, glass, stones, shells;
- Non-standard form of the opening: classical arch, arch-modern, romance or ellipse, semi-arch, “portal”, trapezium, circle imitation, figured, elongated (using transom);
- Use of materials for other purposes: mirror, glass, metal. Reflective surfaces visually make the opening higher and bigger.