Ordinary brick: what is it and what characteristics are different?
The ordinary brick is applied today to carrying out different types of construction works. It is made of clay and subsequently burned under the influence of high temperatures. Conventional ordinary brick is used for the construction of internal and external walls in buildings for various purposes. The masonry is formed using cement and sand compositions.
A full-brick single brick after installation requires additional finishing or plastering of the base with other materials, since it does not have an ideal surface. Brand and strength are usually indicated on the stone and for the erection of buildings in the 1-2 floors used stones brand M100 or M150. If the building is more than 3 floors, then laying with ordinary brick is not carried out.
It is produced in the form of rectangular products and is:
These types of products differ in thickness, size, resistance to low temperatures, strength, texture and weight.
The strength of such a product is denoted by the letter M with digital values, and the frost resistance by the letter F with a digital value.
- Strength. For example, stone brand M50 is usually used for masonry partitions, or used for low structures, which are not a large load. Brick brand M100 can be used for the construction of the main walls. Products brand M175 are used for the construction of foundations.
- Water absorption. Water absorption is also considered important, which indicates the ability of the product to absorb moisture. This value is determined as a percentage and indicates the amount of moisture that a brick can absorb as a percentage. Tests are usually carried out in laboratory conditions, where a brick is placed in water for 48 hours. Standard brick has a water absorption of 15%.
- Frost resistance. It determines the ability of the product to withstand freeze / thaw cycles and this level is also influenced by the level of water absorption.The less moisture a brick absorbs, the more resistant it is to low temperatures. Under standard conditions of construction, it is recommended to use a brick of the F25 brand, and for bearing bases - F35.
- Thermal conductivity. This is also an important indicator, which can vary depending on the type of brick. For a standard product, thermal conductivity is 0.45-0.8 W / M. To ensure good thermal insulation of the structure when using this type of stone, it is recommended to lay walls up to one meter thick. But this is rarely resorted to, and therefore usually use an additional layer of insulation for the base.
Also, when choosing, it is necessary to pay attention to the color of the product, which indicates the composition of the clay used in its production. All these indicators are determined by GOST, and the product itself must meet the parameters that are approved by the manufacturer.
The stone for an ordinary laying is made in such sizes:
- single - 250x120x65mm.
- one and a half - 250x120x88 mm.
- Dual - 250x120x140 mm.
The main material from which silicate and other types of brick are made is clay.It is mined in quarries, and then cleaned and crushed. Then mixed with water and add if necessary, other components. Then the mixture is formed and mixed, and then decomposed into forms in accordance with the dimensions of a particular type of stone. Next, the workpiece enters the furnace, where it is processed at a temperature of 1400 degrees. Such material turns out warm and eco-friendly. When fired, the color of the brick turns red.
Usually, brick production sites are located near clay deposits, which allows reducing production costs and using homogeneous raw materials.
It is also important to monitor the correctness of the addition of components and their mixing. The amount of clay is determined depending on its mineral composition.
Advantages and disadvantages
Characteristics of an ordinary brick quite high and appreciated:
- low water absorption;
- long service life;
- small cost.
- big weight;
- work must be done with experience;
- laying process laborious.
Hollow and solid product
Depending on the needs, this brick can be made full-bodied, which is made in the form of a solid bar without through holes.This material has good sound insulation and can retain heat in the building. It is resistant to water and other aggressive environments. The weight of one brick is 3 kilograms. Use it for the following purposes:
- arrangement of furnaces;
- masonry foundations;
- construction of load-bearing walls;
- manufacturing partitions.
Hollow brick has holes. They can be square or round. The presence of such cells improves the thermal insulation quality and reduces the weight of the product. But at the same time, the strength of a brick deteriorates. The weight of such a product is 2-2.5 kg.
Apply it for such works:
- the construction of buildings with a height of no more than 3 floors;
- constructions of various decorative designs;
- the construction of buildings, which will not affect the high load.
There are different types of ordinary bricks. All of them are actively used for construction work of any complexity.
This is a kind of building bricks. It has standard dimensions, which simplifies its use in construction. For facades of this material it is necessary to finish or warm the base.
Silicate and clinker
These bricks are subspecies of ceramic, and are produced by a special technology. Used for their manufacture refractory clay, which are superimposed in the form of layers and mixed together. The firing of such a product is carried out at a temperature of 1200 degrees, and the process of exposure to high temperature continues until sintering of the layers occurs, as a result of which an indivisible bar is obtained. The color of the material may be different and depends on the type of clay.
The advantage is high thermal conductivity, and a minus - a lot of weight. The disadvantages include the high cost and complexity of manufacturing. This type of brick is usually used for the device:
- tracks and stuff.
Silicate brick is used as a facing or common material. It is made from quartz sand, lime and additives. In order to get the material of the desired color, pigments are added to it, which improve the characteristics and also change the color. As a result, it turns out:
- purple and stuff.
These products differ in strength and have good sound insulation, but at the same time they can absorb moisture, moreover, they are unstable to low temperatures.
This type of brick is distinguished by an attractive appearance, because it can often be used as a facing brick. Since this product is made full-bodied, it weighs quite a lot, which excludes the possibility of high-rise construction with it, so it is often used for the construction of low-rise buildings. In addition, the use of this type of brick requires the creation of a powerful and solid foundation.
To make the construction of this brick durable and high-quality, You must adhere to these rules:
- do not use bricks with defects;
- initially determine the type of laying;
- fill the voids between the bricks with mortar;
- use plumb lines and cords to determine the verticality and horizontal masonry;
- ensure the integrity of the structure with the help of reinforcing materials;
- give the opportunity to grasp the solution when laying, so that the base does not move;
- make seams at least one centimeter thick to avoid cracking.
For the construction you can use both silicate and ordinary ceramic bricks, choosing them depending on the type of construction.It is also important to carefully transport and unload / load these products so that they do not get damaged or split.
From the video below you will learn about the mistakes of the beginning masons in the brickwork.