How to make a machine and make a cinder block?
The range of building materials today can not but rejoice in its diversity, however, many people prefer to make similar products with their own hands. So, it is quite possible to make slag stones in great demand on your own using a special homemade machine. Today we will analyze in detail how to do it correctly.
Slag stone is such a building material that has established itself as one of the most durable and unpretentious. It has considerable dimensions, especially if you put a regular brick next to it.It is possible to manufacture slag blocks not only in a factory setting. Some masters take on such work at home. If you strictly adhere to the technology, you get high-quality and strong blocks from which you can build a house or any outbuilding.
If it was decided to independently manufacture such products, then a number of its features should be taken into account.
- Slag stone - fireproof material. It does not ignite itself, and does not enhance the already active flame.
- From really high-quality blocks turn out durable and sustainable homes / farm buildings. Neither harsh climatic conditions, nor hurricanes, nor constant gusting winds will damage such buildings.
- Repair of cinder block buildings does not require unnecessary energy and free time - all work can be carried out in a short time.
- Slag blocks are also distinguished by their large size, thanks to which buildings are erected very quickly, which pleases many builders.
- This material is distinguished by durability. Buildings built from it can stand for more than 100 years without losing their previous characteristics.
- Another feature of the cinder block is its noise insulating component. So, in homes made of this material, there is no annoying street noise.
- The production of slag blocks is carried out using various raw materials, therefore, it is possible to choose the optimal products for any conditions.
- Differs in cinder block and the fact that it is not subjected to attacks of various kinds of parasites or rodents. In addition, it does not rot, so it is not necessary to coat it with antiseptic solutions and other similar compounds designed to protect the substrate.
- Despite decent dimensions, such blocks have small weight. This feature is noted by many masters. Due to the lightness of these materials it is possible to seamlessly move from one place to another without causing a tap. However, it should be noted that some varieties of such products are still quite heavy.
- Slag stone is not afraid of low temperatures.
- These blocks are distinguished by their high heat capacity, due to which they make cozy and warm dwellings.
- Temperature jumps do not harm the cinder block.
- Slag buildings are usually trimmed with decorative materials to give a more aesthetic look. However, it is very important to remember that the cinder block should not be covered with ordinary plaster (any “wet” work with this material should not be carried out). You can also use a special decorative block, which is often used instead of expensive lining.
- When working with a cinder block, it is important to take into account one important feature - such a material is characterized by a large water absorption, so it must be protected from contact with moisture and damp. Otherwise, the blocks may collapse over time.
- Unfortunately, the geometry of the slag blocks leaves much to be desired. That is why, laying out the overlap of such material, you will have to constantly adjust individual elements - cut them and saw.
- Slag blocks have a relatively low cost.
According to experts, in the work of such materials are quite capricious, so it is always very important to follow the appropriate instructions. The same applies to the process of their manufacture.
The composition of the mixture
Production of slag blocks at home requires the master to adhere to a specific composition, as well as certain proportions of all components.Thus, cement is usually used as a binder in this material with a grade not lower than M400. As for the filling component, it can be completely composed of slag or be mixed. The last option is obtained if you add a small amount of gravel, sand (simple or expanded clay), crushed brick and fine fraction of expanded clay.
In the manufacture of cinder blocks need to comply with the following proportions:
- 8-9 parts of the filling component;
- 1.5-2 parts of the binder ingredient.
If in the course of the work cement was used with the marking M500, then it is permissible to take it by 15% less than the raw material M400. Most often, such an element as slag occupies at least 65% of the total volume of the filler.
For example, from 9 parts not less than 6 falls on this component, and the remaining volume falls on gravel and sand. In theory, when self-fabricating, it is permissible to use concrete or brick fights, screening.
Standard proportions of slag stone are:
- 2 pieces of sand;
- 2 parts of gravel;
- 7 parts of slag;
- 2 parts of portland cement marked M400.
As for water, it is customary to add it in an approximate ratio of 0.5 parts. The result is a semi-dry solution. To ensure its high quality, you need to take a small handful and throw it on a hard surface.If the thrown lump crumbled, but in the conditions of compression it regained its former form, the composition can be considered suitable for further use.
If you plan to get colored cinder block, the recipe is supplemented with colored chalk or brick dust. To improve the strength characteristics of this material, use special plasticizers. In some cases refer to the addition of gypsum, ash or sawdust.
It is recommended to mix all the listed components in a special mixer or a concrete mixer, however, such equipment usually has a high price. If we are talking about preparing a small amount of the mixture, it is possible to knead it by hand, despite the fact that such a process is considered to be quite laborious.
Factory forms for the preparation of cinder blocks are made of reinforced concrete or steel. Such parts easily maintain the weight of the solution in a large volume. As for the forms prepared by yourself, they are most often made of wood or sheets of steel. Such elements play more the role of special formwork.
To save on raw materials and free time, the forms are mainly collected without the bottom. Under them you can put a simple film.Thanks to this method it is possible to significantly simplify the whole process of forming blocks. It must be remembered that the forms themselves must be made of perfectly smooth woody parts. The working surface will be a concrete base, a table with a flat and smooth tabletop or a sheet of iron, which also has no defects.
Many masters use glass bottles to create voids. Plastic containers are not worth taking, as they can be seriously bathed. Bottles poured water. Otherwise, they will float on the surface of the prepared composition.
Let's take a closer look at how to make a mold for slag blocks:
- you need to choose polished boards 14 cm long (the width must be a multiple of this parameter);
- then, using a hacksaw, it is necessary to separate the segments, which will then play the role of transverse partitions;
- then you will need to connect the segments with the longitudinal elements to make a rectangular frame;
- then you need to cut a sheet of steel or any other material with a smooth surface into separate plates measuring 14x30 cm;
- in the inner part of the resulting structure, they make cuts, which will act as grooves, the width of which is equal to the dimensions of the dividing strips;
- then the segments responsible for the separation are fixed in cuts, creating a mold for the manufacture of 3 or more slag blocks.
In order for the resulting solution to harden the solution to serve as long as possible, at the final stage, both metal and wood structures are recommended to be painted on an oil basis. This form is suitable for the preparation of cinder blocks, the dimensions of which are 14x14x30 cm.
If it is necessary to make elements with other dimensional parameters, then the original values are changed to other sizes.
How to make a vibromachine?
To make slag blocks at home will be obtained with the help of a special vibrating machine, which can also be made by hand. The main component of this device is the vibroform itself for the solution. Such a machine is a box of steel in which parts are fixed with or without voids. The matrix itself is already a machine. It is allowed to apply, carrying out some stages in the manual way.
To make a vibrating machine yourself, you need to purchase:
- welding machine;
- tool for plumbing.
As for materials, you will need:
- steel sheet 3 mm - 1 square. m;
- pipes with a diameter of 75-90 mm - 1 m;
- 3 mm steel strip - 0.3 m;
- 500-750 W electric motor;
- nuts and bolts.
Consider the order of work on the manufacture of homemade vibrobank.
- Measure the standard slag block or fix specific parameters you need.
- Cut the side parts of the machine from a sheet of metal. Based on the number of cinder blocks, provide the required number of partitions. As a result, a box is formed with 2 (or more) identical compartments.
- The bottom wall not less than 30 mm thick should have voids. Based on this parameter, we determine the height of the cylinder bounding the voids.
- Cut into 6 individual pieces of pipe with a length corresponding to the height of the cylinder.
- In order for the cylinders to acquire a cone-shaped structure, it is permissible to cut them lengthwise to the middle part, compress with a vice, and then join by welding. In this case, the diameter of the elements will decrease by about 2-3 mm.
- Cylinders need to brew on both sides.
- Further, these parts should be connected to each other in the form of one row, following along the long side of the future cinder block.They must repeat the location of the voids in the factory cell. At the edges it is necessary to attach a 30 mm plate with holes for fasteners to eyelets.
- In the center of each compartment of the matrix should be made propyl and welded eye. This is necessary to ensure the installation of temporary fasteners limiters voids.
- On the outer transverse wall of the weld 4 bolts for mounting holes of the motor.
- Next, weld the apron and the blades along the edges in the places where the loading is carried out.
- After that, you can proceed to the preparation of all elements for painting.
- You can make a press that follows the shape of the mechanism using a plate with holes that are 3-5 mm larger than the cylinders themselves. The plate should seamlessly enter the depth of 50-70 mm in the box, where there are restrictive parts.
- It is necessary to weld the handles to the press.
- Now the equipment is permissible to paint and fix the vibration motor.
There are two ways in which slag blocks are made.
- Easy way. In this case, special containers are used, being in which the prepared solution acquires the required strength.Blocks dry naturally, until the cement is fully consolidated.
- Difficult way. With this method of manufacturing used vibration devices. In many cases, they address such elements as the vibrating table or supplement the form with a motor with a vibration function.
Let's get acquainted with the technology of manufacturing slag blocks using simple forms.
- All prepared ingredients in the required proportions are placed in a concrete mixer, and then thoroughly mixed.
- The finished solution is poured into molds. As for tamping, it is carried out with the help of a hammer - they knock on their containers so that all the air escapes from the material.
- If the blocks are planned to be made with voids, then bottles with water are put into each individual part (usually 2 bottles are enough).
The main difficulty with this method of manufacturing is tamping blocks. If air bubbles remain inside the solution, this will adversely affect the quality of the final product.
As for the more complex method of production of slag blocks, the following work is carried out here:
- Starting the production of materials in this way should be with stirring the mixture in the mixer;
- the resulting solution is sent to the mold, and then leveled with a trowel;
- then the vibrator starts, and the solution itself is kept in shape for 20-60 seconds;
- then the equipment needs to be turned off, the installation is lifted, and then the finished unit is removed.
In the manufacture of slag blocks using this technology, special attention should be paid to leveling the mortar in the corner sections. They must be filled. Otherwise, the geometry of the finished product may be seriously affected.
Drying is another important step in the manufacture of slag blocks. The production process itself usually takes about 2-4 days. Sufficient strength characteristics that allow you to move on to the use of blocks, as a rule, are achieved after 28 days. This is the amount of time needed to get high-quality building material suitable for carrying out certain works. Also, cinder blocks can dry out naturally. As a rule, this process takes place with a simple method of manufacturing materials (in conventional forms).
For drying slag stones, special chambers are often used, which prevent cracking during their hardening.So that the blocks are not covered with cracks, they must be moistened from time to time. This process is especially relevant if the production process is carried out in hot weather.
It should be noted that the process of hardening of cinder blocks can be significantly accelerated. Such an effect can be achieved by adding special substances to the solution - plasticizers. With such additives, the material will not only dry out faster, but also be stronger. Slag blocks with plasticizers can be removed from the site and stored after 6-8 hours.
Tips and tricks
- To make the front side of the cinder block more accurate and complete, these materials for drying should be placed on a flat rubber base.
- Never place blocks on top of each other during their drying. Otherwise, materials may turn out to be deformed, and their geometry will cause many problems during construction.
- In all cases, you must first make drawings of the forms and the slag blocks themselves. Thus, it will be possible to avoid many of the difficulties associated with construction processes.
- When preparing the solution, be sure to adhere to the required proportions.The slightest errors can lead to the fact that the blocks are too fragile and unsuitable for construction.
- Before pouring the prepared solution, the forms should be wiped. So it turns out to prevent sticking of cinder blocks to the bottom and walls. For cleaning most often use diesel fuel, waste oil or other similar compounds.
- Note that the rate of solidification of the solution is directly dependent on its thickness. The thicker the composition, the faster the blocks will harden.
- For the period of drying, slag blocks are recommended to cover with polyethylene. The film will be able to protect the material from the appearance of cracks in hot weather, as well as protect the cinder block from getting wet if it rains.
- If you want to save a little in the manufacture of slag parts, you can combine in a ratio of 3 to 1 lime and cement. You should not worry about the quality of cinder blocks - from such a composition they will not be less reliable.
On how to make a slag-block machine for 4 blocks, see the following video.