Laying tiles: the details of the process

Tile is the most practical option for flooring in “wet” areas: bathroom, toilet, corridor and other places with high humidity levels. If the coating is made of high-quality ceramics, it is easily cleaned of dirt and lasts a long time without losing its original appearance. Many strive to do the facing work with their own hands: It will be much cheaper than inviting a master. If a person plans to do this for the first time, he needs to become more familiar with such an issue as tile laying. Knowledge of the details of the process is very important in order to approach the issue correctly and make the right choice of tile, correctly calculating the amount of materials.

Special features

Tile as a finishing material has its own characteristics and advantages, which should be read before buying,to be sure of the right choice of a decent and durable option for facing the floor or walls.

First of all, it is a high-strength material, which, when testing the tensile strength, gives an indicator of compression up to 300 MPa. The tile can withstand a large load, is not subject to deformation and does not bend under the weight of a person’s body or heavy objects. It is not subject to fire, and if it is heated, then the emission of harmful substances does not occur, because it is based on natural components. It was the fire resistance of ceramics that became the reason for beautifully and with taste to revet with it stoves, fireplaces and places located near electric and gas stoves.

Ceramics also have excellent heat-conducting characteristics and quickly become warm: this property is no less important when facing a stove or a working fireplace.

If you put such material on the floor, it should be borne in mind that without additional heating the floor will always be cold, so you should either walk on it in shoes or provide additional heating, for example, bring under floor heating system.The tile is resistant to fading, its color characteristics do not change with time, unlike other coatings. It does not conduct current and is not an electrostatic accumulator. It does not accumulate harmful microorganisms. This is the best material in order to finish them pools, saunas, operating rooms in hospitals.

Unlike laminate and parquet, ceramics have an enviable resistance to chemicals, in addition to the hydrogen-fluoride compound. Tile resistance to household chemicals is divided into five levels: AA, A, B, C, D. For example, double letter A means that the material is not affected by most of the chemical compounds, single A means high resistance to them, and so on.

The indicator of wear resistance of a tile is the leading factor: it determines the service life of any coating. According to the European standardization system, there are five levels that determine the class of durability. It is measured in groups - from first to fifth, and should always be indicated on the packaging.

Testing of ceramic tiles for wear resistance is carried out in a very interesting way: the material is placed in a device that looks like mill millstones in appearance, and a coarse grain falls on its surface.Water is fed, the millstones begin to rotate, thereby abrading the tile, creating an imitation of the natural conditions of its use. Depending on how many rotations of the millstones will withstand the material without the formation of visual defects on it, this class of wear resistance is assigned to it. Based on this indicator, the tile is further sorted by the type of its use in rooms with different requirements for finishing.

In addition to resistance to wear, there are a number of parameters that must also be considered when selecting tiles for different rooms. For example, the ability of a ceramic coating to absorb moisture (or moisture absorption). To measure the level of moisture absorption can be a percentage of the mass of material.

According to the international standardization, there is an indication of a certain letter on the product packaging in combination with the designation of the technique of forming the teapot.

The ability of a material to absorb moisture directly affects its resistance to cold (or frost resistance). If the tile is slightly porous, it will almost not pass moisture, therefore, has a high frost resistance.The first and second groups are frost-resistant, and the third is not. The third group is intended only for use in warm rooms.

The specificity of the production of tile materials is such that the concepts of caliber and tone should also be taken into account in order to avoid any misunderstandings. The tone means the same as “color”, but, unlike other types of materials, where the color is usually monochromatic and has no discrepancies, it is not easy to achieve the same color in ceramics production. There is always a slight difference in shade, so in the process of sorting the tile is distributed according to the tone, which is marked with the corresponding letter: A, B, and so on.

Caliber is the size of ceramic tiles, expressed in millimeters. As with the tone, the size cannot be completely accurate - usually there are minor deviations, so there is the concept of nominal size and actual. For example, the nominal size of a batch is 20x20 mm, and the actual size is indicated by the English letter W and indicated by three digits without a comma: W 198x198 (19.8 mm), and in general - caliber 01.

In addition, there is such an indicator as resistance to sliding and cracking.If a small “cobweb” is detected visually on the tile surface, this is a marriage. Based on the number of marriages in a given batch, an indicator such as tile type is formed: the first (marked with red), the second (blue) and the third (green). The safety of the coating depends on how great its resistance to sliding. The higher the friction coefficient, the safer the surface. Most often, it is measured using the German method - on the basis of the angle of the floor at which the object begins to slip on the ceramic surface.

Of course, it would be incorrect to speak about which tile is “ideal” or “universal”. Speaking about the features of ceramics, first of all, one should pay attention to its functionality, technical differences in the use of its different types, as well as whether it is suitable for the room in which facing is to be performed.


Many people ask what makes ceramic tiles and tiles different from each other. Buyers who first encounter these two names often often think that these are two different materials, but they are not.There is no difference between ceramic and tiles.

Tile is one of the names of tiles made of ceramics, a kind of wall cladding.

Tile, cotto, clinker - all these definitions are clarifying for one large segment of ceramic tilewhich may differ from each other on the basis of the manufacturing technology, the quality of the materials used, the strength indicators and the objectives of the application. Translated from the Greek language keramos means "burnt clay". All types of such tiles, without exception, are made of clay with the addition of some impurities, for example, quartz chips or feldspar. Water and sand are also added to the material.

Types of tiles may differ from each other on the basis of the materials used, the specifics of firing and the level of porosity. It is made from various types of clay (red or white), its base can be dense or porous, and the front side - glazed or unglazed.

Porcelain tile material once fired may have a weak porosity and is most often used to create durable flooring.Laying is allowed to be carried out both indoors and outdoors. The tile is resistant to cold and high traffic conditions. Highly porous types of coatings using single firing imply the use of technological compositions, due to which the shrinkage during firing becomes less.

Tile of high porosity is designed only for wall cladding, because it is not a material of increased strength.

The most common type of coating is porcelain ceramics. Its more famous name is porcelain, it is also called gres tile or color. It is characterized by an almost glass face and high density, which eliminates the masters from the need to expose it to glazing. Pollution is removed from it very easily, and the resistance to the mechanics of porcelain stoneware is excellent, so this type of tile is most often used as high-strength flooring.

Plain floor tiles and clinker varieties cannot compare with porcelain stoneware in terms of durability.hardness and other characteristics. Porcelain tile is polished and matte.Its matte finish is the most durable, but polished looks more beautiful and attractive. Matte stoneware is ideal for laying tiles on the street, in difficult operating conditions. It can often be found on the steps, which, being lined in this way, will last a very long time, without losing any practical properties or appearance.

If you compare the porcelain stoneware with ordinary granite, which has a natural origin, natural stone may begin to collapse due to temperature changes or harsh weather and climate conditions. Despite the fact that natural granite is considered to be quite durable, porcelain stoneware is much better than it in all respects. Ceramic granite tiles look uniform, its surface is even, and no chemicals or reagents, except hydrofluoric acid, can be used for it. In an ecological sense, porcelain stoneware tiles are as safe as natural stone.

Glazed tile types are not only ordinary tiles that have a shiny glossy surface.

If the glaze layer is thick enough, it can also be used as a floor covering in places with a high level of permeability.

The technology of double firing, which is applied to all varieties of ceramics, at cost is much more expensive than a single firing of the material. The surface that has undergone a double firing, has a pleasant smoothness and shines. This tile is universal: it can be used both for walls and for the floor. If the firing is performed once, the gas passing through the surface, "remains" on the front side in the form of cosmetic irregularities. When using double firing this does not happen. Of course, this type of tile costs more, but aesthetically looks more attractive, although much depends on the location and on the installation technique itself, because if you like, you can hide some of the irregularities visually.

Clinker tile types are made from different types of clayin which oxides based dyes, fluxes and fireclay are added. Fireclay - it is nothing like clay, which is burned to the final loss of plastic properties. Depending on the manufacturing technology, the front part of the clinker can be either glazed or without the use of glaze. Most often in the production of applied short roasting,which results in a low-porous material that is resistant to chemicals and harsh weather conditions. When laying the clinker tile, you should always leave a wide joint, because shrinkage occurs as a result of firing and the edge of the clinker always has irregularities that must be compensated in this way.

Cotto-type ceramic tiles are used for flooring purposes. It is unglazed, when laying forms a relief surface that prevents slip. Such a front side is called rusticated. In the production of cotto extruded mixes are used, consisting of several varieties of clay. At the same time careful sorting and mixing is not carried out. This method of creating tile materials has been known since antiquity and is still relevant when facing.

For those who care about high aesthetics and impeccable quality of laying tile materials, you can offer such an option as seamless tile. Does this happen in reality? In fact, she has stitches, but in the process of manufacturing the material undergoes rectification: its edges are carefully cut using a special machine.As already mentioned, during firing (both on one and on both sides), the deformation of the tiles occurs, due to which technical lining may occur in the course of work due to a mismatch between the size and shape.

In the case when the material undergoes correction in the form of rectification, there will be no deviations and all parameters will coincide perfectly.

Rectified tile will provide a great aesthetic effect. in the form of a smooth monolithic surface. It often gives the impression that seams and seams really do not exist. Such a pattern looks advantageous in a large space, so the "seamless" tile is produced in large sizes, 60x60 centimeters or more. It can be laid on the floor and on the walls.

The prospect of acquiring such material looks very tempting. However, before buying it is important to consider some of its features. The first is the cost, which, as a rule, is very high compared with the usual variants of ceramic tiles. Rectification is a very laborious process, and only he alone gives a price premium of at least 20-30 percent. Of course, it will be cheaper than using natural stone, for example, marble or granite, but compared to reliable ceramic granite, the “seamless” version costs much more.

The rectified tile has specific subtleties of laying. If ordinary ceramics is more “unpretentious” to the flaws of the walls and the floor, their possible irregularities and roughness, in this case the surface preparation should be carried out very carefully: it is best if it is ideally even or as close as possible to these parameters. In addition, to work with this type of material requires experience, so it is best to trust the professionals, because the beginner, unfortunately, will not be able to cope with such fine work.

The very concept of "seamlessness" should not be taken literally. Even if visually seams are not visible, they, of course, are still there. Between the tiles there is always a small gap between one and a half and two millimeters wide. The effect of a monolithic canvas is created by maximum and subtlest fit.

If you do not leave the seams at all, minimal irregularity immediately spoil the whole picture.

Ceramic tiles, of course, the most common material for lining floors, walls, fireplaces and more. Its different types (as a rule, having a high wear resistance) are also used for the facing of street pavements.However, in order to create a reliable and durable coating in the street, there is not only ceramics. Probably, many have already heard about the rubber tile, which has found wide application in flooring for country tracks and playgrounds. In some cases, the rubber coating can be a good alternative to ceramic, especially if you do not need to create a “front view”, and you can use a simpler material.

The rubber tile is made of weight, which is a mix of rubber, polyurethane and colored filler. Often used for its manufacture in the form of recycled rubber crumb, the basis for which are old car tires. This material, contrary to popular belief, is durable and highly resistant to wear. If you touch such a tile, it will be soft and slightly rough to the touch. In winter, a layer of ice crust will form on it, which can easily be cleaved without harm to the coating. At high and low temperatures, the rubber tile remains as bright in color without losing its original properties.

The material is also resistant to deformation, perfectly absorbs, and if any defect appears on it, the damaged segment is easily replaced by a new one. Very valuable properties of rubber tiles - it never slips and dries very quickly after rain, repels dust and dirt.

The scope of application of this type of coating is wide: from playgrounds and sports areas to arranging garden paths in private areas, especially in places of high humidity: near fountains, wells, pools.

The rubber coating passes water well, which ensures the absence of moisture on its front side.

The rubber tile keeps within on a surface which has to be very well prepared. Usually it is a smooth asphalt surface, a concrete coupler, and if the surface is uneven, it can be corrected with the help of special leveling compounds. Work on laying should be carried out in dry and clear weather at a temperature of five degrees and above.

Calculation of materials

Correctly calculate the number of tiles for any room will help that the wizard determines in advance with the answers to simple but important questions.First of all, you need to decide what color will be used, whether you need to customize it according to the drawing, whether you will need additions in the form of decorative elements. It is important to know that when measuring the facing surface, calculations should be made, taking into account the tiles to be cut. Without this, it will not work, because the rooms are rarely found without protrusions in the walls, tricky corners and places for the output of communications.

There are several recommendations for the calculation of tiles. Regardless of the place where it is planned to be laid, it is first measured the length and height of each wall where the cladding will be carried out. It also measures the length and width of the floor, and the dimensions of the door (or bath) are necessarily subtracted from the dimensions of the wall where the door (or bath) is located. Next, you should decide on the parameters of tiled plates. They are 30x30, 33x33 and 40x40 - these are the standard sizes for the floor, and the lining usually has the parameters 20x30 and 25x33. Based on these indicators, it is necessary to make preliminary calculations in square meters.

For greater accuracy, all tiles are counted individually.

It is recommended to calculate the amount of materials without using popular online programs, but manually, because in the case of tiles they often make big mistakes.For example, an online calculator cannot take into account the width of interrow seams, moreover, in any such program there are always indications that it is better to recalculate all indicators later.

What should be the thickness of the glue?

For beginners, this question may seem insignificant, but it is one of the main tasks. The thickness of the adhesive depends on the type of material used.

Also factors such as tile dimensions and the level of surface preparation for lining influence the thickness.

If the size of the tile and its weight are small, the minimum thickness of the adhesive should be two millimeters. For heavy models of laying material (such as porcelain stoneware) it is recommended to apply a layer of glue of at least 4 or 5 millimeters. When the surface has significant irregularities and cavities, the thickness of the glue may be larger: in this they are all marked alternately and the adhesive layer is adjusted depending on their depth and size, because all the pits and valleys will need to be filled with glue. However, the maximum layer is not recommended to do more than ten millimeters when laying tile on the walls, and the thickness of the adhesive solution when working with conventional floor tiles can be 15 mm.

As for the porcelain stoneware, since this material is characterized by great weight and strength, the thickness of the glue during its installation should be appropriate: from 20 to 22 mm, but not more. If you overdo it, it will cause the adhesion between the surfaces to deteriorate significantly.

When laying tile on the wall, you should also pay attention to how the irregularities are located on it. It has already been said that ten millimeters is the optimal level of glue thickness, but if the wall is relatively flat, without large bumps and cavities, the initial layer can be applied smaller: three to four millimeters, and as it improves or deteriorates the wall, increase or decrease it. So gradually, and carried out the correction of all the irregularities.

The technology of applying the adhesive composition also varies. Sometimes glue is applied to the walls (floor) and tiles. Some experts say that if the glue is of good quality, it is enough to apply it only on the floor or walls or on the material. In order to save glue, you can use its single-layer application, however, beginners will feel more comfortable when the glue is applied on both surfaces: the tile can be easily leveled and moved in the right direction.

What to put?

Lay tile on the floor in two ways. In the first case, a cement-based mortar is used, and in the second, specialized glue. When working with cement, the technology of laying tile is carried out by the so-called “sealing” of it to the floor, and if glue is used, the material is carefully applied to the surface.

Laying on the wall is carried out on the prepared surface., which should be maximized and treated with a primer.

It is better to lay the tile on the putty surface, especially the putty is relevant in the corners, because with its help you can smooth out their irregularities.

And finally, smooth walls - an important factor that determines in this case, the quality of work. If the walls are very curved and cannot be leveled using a primer or an additional adhesive layer, the use of plaster or drywall will help, after which you can safely work with any tile material.

Surface preparation

First of all, the wall must be “healthy and not have fungal infections. The uneven surface will need to be leveled, and if the plaster crumbles or peels off, it must be removed, followed by stripping and leveling.Of course, you always want to hope that only a part of the plaster layer will have to be dismantled, but its “avalanche-like” flaking often happens - along the entire perimeter of the wall, to which the master should always be ready.

If the wall is brick, and the layer of plaster "sits" tightly, you should clean the surface of old coatings: whitewash, painting, wallpaper. At the slightest sign of a fungal infection, the wall must be “cured” before facing it: otherwise, all efforts sooner or later will go to waste. We'll have to buy special personnel who are guaranteed to cope with fungi. Before treating the wall with an antifungal solution, the loose layers of plaster are removed, after which not only the affected areas of the surface are processed, but also all the walls to be sure to avoid the re-emergence of microflora. In advanced cases, processing may be performed several times.

After antifungal measures, the walls should be treated using a deep penetration primer containing an antiseptic. In this case, double priming is desirable.The second layer is applied after the first is completely absorbed into the wall and dries.

The alignment of the walls includes minor repairs in the form of eliminating small flaws.

If there are cracks and cracks on the wall, their size will have to be increased to ten millimeters in width, and then filled with a putty “against the stop” and leveled, focusing on the common surface plane.

There are several ways to correct walls., including plastering them completely, plastering or using drywall or plywood. In this case, light roughness of the walls is allowed and even desirable: the wall and the tile will better adhere to each other when using adhesive composition. As already mentioned, small defects are spattered, and if you plan on facing the walls with massive ceramic granite, drywall or plywood will create the perfect foundation for it.

To prepare the floor surface with your own hands, the first requirements will be the same as when preparing the walls for lining: cleanliness, treatment with antifungal substances (if necessary), leveling, elimination of defects. Inspection and preparation of a concrete screed, if any, will be the most laborious. The coupler should definitely be tapped completely to identify unstable areas.Those fragments that make a booming sound when tapping should be removed. Leaving the "loose" part of the screed is impossible, everything must be cleaned up to the "healthy" layers of concrete. Of course, such work is very tiring, but it should be carried through to the end if it is necessary. After removing the old screed or its sections, a new one is poured, it is leveled horizontally, and after it is dried, tiling is already being carried out.

If the screed is in good condition, if necessary, minor repairs are carried out in the form of embedding cracks and eliminating large mounds, which should be removed, focusing on the overall level of the concrete base.

After the work is completed, it is necessary to clean the room, dust the entire surface, and then prime it, preferably twice in a row.

Beginners sometimes have a question about whether it is possible to lay a new tile on an old tile, applying it as a base. Of course, there is such an opportunity, but only when the tile is strong, high-quality, and the floor is even and it does not need to be leveled horizontally. The method of laying on the old tile is quite common for the simple reason that dismantling the old one is very tedious, and communication can be touched.However, if the old tile is unstable and "dancing", it is impossible to carry out a new laying on it. Unfortunately, there is no way out how to completely remove the old coating.

If the old tile does not cause serious concerns, before conducting a new lining, it is necessary to conduct an audit of the floor by tapping each tile for its stability. Those areas that produce a dull sound need to be removed, cleaned the formed depressions to the concrete base, and then primed or treated with the same adhesive composition, which is planned to be used in further work. The surface of the old tile is degreased to ensure maximum adhesion of the glue. For this purpose, you can use a conventional organic solvent.

Old tile joints are also tested for strength. In the process of checking, the most loose and cracked ones are removed, after which the deepest cleaning of the joints is carried out in subsequent priming, preferably with a compound like “Concrete Contact”: it is on him that the tile adhesive always lays perfectly.

If the base of the floor consists of wood, it is also possible to lay ceramic tiles on it, of course, if it is strong and in good condition.Testing of the wooden floor for suitability for plastering works is carried out by identifying "floating" and creaking fragments. Weak parts of the floor are removed, lags under them are checked for rotting of the tree.

If necessary, worn areas should be replaced, followed by treatment with an antiseptic solution.

In the case when the floor is wooden and there is paint preserved on it, its remains should be removed with any abrasive. You can use chemical washing and warming up with the help of a building dryer. After that, you need to conduct a floor check for strength. If you plan to lay the tile directly on the old boards, you will need waterproofing, which is applied as a latex impregnation, designed for wood materials. Impregnation is applied with a wide brush, after which the floor is immediately covered with a durable fiberglass paint net.

When the impregnation is dry, the mesh is fixed with dowels, an additional layer is created on the floor so that the tile glue will reliably “grab” with the wooden base. The composition of the layer usually consists of silicate glue, large-fraction purified sand and water in a ratio of 2: 2: 1.When the mixture hardens after application, the base for the tile will acquire the desired rough texture and strength necessary for a high-quality lining.

There are different ways to create a solid base for tiles on wooden floors: it can simply be covered in wide sheets of RSD. This will facilitate the work in terms of removing the old paint is not necessary. A waterproofing layer-impregnation layer is placed on OSB sheets, or an ordinary thick polyethylene film can be used. GVL sheets are an alternative to OSB: they are made from gypsum and cellulose fibers and are able to withstand heavy loads. They are laid in the same way as any others, and their advantage is that no additional layers and treatments will be needed, with the exception of priming.

The use of sheets GVL contributes to the fact that will be held as quickly as possible facing with savings and time and effort.


Before you start laying tiles on the wall, you need to lay out and prepare a place for the first row. At the bottom of the wall is mounted a rail or a corner of plastic - this is the basis for the rest of the entire first row.Then you should draw a straight line vertically in order to control the correctness of the laying. In order to clearly draw a line, you can use a laser level or plumb.

To disperse the surface of the floor, drawing the line of the distant edge of the first row. It should be noted the location of the tiles that are different from the rest in the event that there is a need to map the pattern. The process of laying itself is recommended to start from one of the furthest corners of the room.

It is important to carry out all calculations, taking into account not only the size of the material itself, but also the gaps and the seams between the tiles.

Required tools

In order to lay the tile on the wall or floor, the master will need the following tools and available tools:

  • laser or building level;
  • screwdriver or hammer drill with a nozzle in order to mix the mixture;
  • tape measure and two spatulas (rubber and notched);
  • wide brush;
  • roller;
  • clippers;
  • tile cutting tool;
  • marker or pencil for marking,
  • two separate tanks for glue mix and primer.

How to cut a tile?

No matter how perfect the walls or the floor are,plate-laying works never do without cutting the material. You can cut the tile with an ordinary glass cutter or with a special tool that has a diamond cutting wheel. If cutting tiles is done mechanically and manually, in this case the principle is the same as when cutting glass. This simple method is used in the case of a light tile: the cutting wheel of the tool is guided to the marking line on the front side of its fragment, and after an incision, the material is carefully cracked along the drawn line.

The floor tile is much harder and larger, so the glass cutter is not suitable for it. For heavy types of ceramics applied tool called machine tile cutter. It has a pad and limiters with markings on the ruler, which makes cutting a lot easier. The limiters must be moved a distance so that the marking line coincides with the line located in the middle of the tile cutter.

The upper part of the tile cutter is equipped with a carriage, which has two guides, and a wheel for cutting and an emphasis with folding petals located to each other at a certain angle. Nearby is the lever.The carriage must be moved to the far edge, the wheel should be attached to the edge of the tile fragment, lightly press and guide them along the markings. Then place the carriage stop in the middle of the cut and split the tile with a slight pressure.

Mounting technology

The installation technology has its own subtleties and nuances depending on the place of installation and stages of work.

On the wall laying is done without too much difficulty. First you need to apply the adhesive mixture to the surface of the wall with a wide trowel and remove excess glue. The glue is applied to the inside of the tile with a thickness of about three millimeters, the edges are carefully smeared, and the excess is removed with a notched trowel. After that, you need to put the tiles on the wall and lightly press.

The alignment is carried out by applying a building or laser level, and crosses are put between the tiles so that the row is even and neat and the tiles do not “float”. Crosses are usually five in one intersection: one in the middle and one for each seam. It is impossible to keep them in the seams for a long time in order to avoid setting with glue.

Laying on the floor is a more laborious process. In order to lay the floor tile on its own, on the flat side of the spatula, the adhesive mixture is drawn and applied at an acute angle to the floor itself.The glue must penetrate deep into all small gaps so that there are no gaps or voids left. Then the glue is level with a notched trowel so that the “grooves” are of the same height (the adhesive layer is three millimeters).

If ceramics are laid on the floor, it is advisable to “start” with whole tiles, filling gaps with scraps. Each tile is pressed tightly to the floor, well-smeared with glue, and the excess mixture must be removed from the joints with a cloth. Just as when working with wall tiles, the dimensions of the seams and the accuracy of the masonry are corrected with the help of crosses between the joints.

It is important to ensure that the butt line is kept straight.

When facing a fireplace, as a rule, decorative types of materials are used. (natural and artificial stone, resistant stoneware, terracotta tiles). Do not veneer the furnace tiles: it can not withstand the heat, adhesion with glue will deteriorate and it will simply disappear. Surface preparation will be required: jointing, cleaning from dust and plaster. A primer is then applied to improve the adhesion of the adhesive. If a brick surface is being revetted or restored and it begins to crumble, a rebar mesh is attached to it.

As an adhesive, only heat-resistant mixtures are used, which can be prepared independently according to the instructions. Laying starts from the bottom. Using an even spatula, the glue is applied to the surface of the fireplace so that several fragments of the cladding can be laid immediately. Then, on an even layer, you need to walk with a notched trowel, attach a tile, press it and lightly tap it with a hammer of rubber. The level of the tiled row is controlled by the building level. To revet corners and ledges, special figured parts are applied.

Trimming is usually placed between the rows, and after lining the entire surface of the furnace is varnished with high heat resistance. It will protect the tile from dirt, soot and moisture.

Laying patterns are applied to the floor tile.

There are several options:

  • “The seam to the seam” is ideal for beginners, it is clear and simple: the laying of parts of the tile is carried out one after another, and the rows are straight and even. All masonry runs parallel to the walls;
  • “On the diagonal” - the laying is not parallel and the corners of the tile are directed towards the wall surface, as if they “look” at it.The option is less economical, more laborious, but aesthetically beautiful and attractive;
  • "In the run" - the tiles are placed one above the other, without coincidence at the seams, by analogy with the brickwork.

It so happens that you want to dock tiles with linoleum or floorboard in the next room without the threshold. In order to accurately do the joining, it is important to take into account the different thickness of ceramics, glue, different substrates and, for example, floorboard. You need to calculate it this way: first, the thickness of the glue and the tile itself are formed. Then, the thickness of the floorboard, glue and plywood (if any) is added separately, and the key number is the difference between these two numbers. It determines the height difference at the junction.

In the event that the “height difference” was “recalled” late, it is always possible to correct the situation by acquiring a docking profile, which can be of a different level.

Grouting is carried out after the completion of laying tile on walls or floors. This process is called fugging and in order to properly hold it, you must wait until the glue has completely dried. For grouting, blends based on cement, epoxy, sealant or silicone are used.The selection of the mixture is carried out on the basis of the color range of the cladding. The cement-based grout will need to be diluted with water right before use, and the silicone and epoxy mixtures are already ready to use.

Before grouting, the finished surface of the lining is thoroughly cleaned with a vacuum cleaner. If you use a grout based on silicone or epoxides, you need to glue the edges of the tile with masking tape: this will help to avoid getting the mixture on the glazed front side. The mixture is applied to the seam with a rubber spatula and slightly pressed into the depth. Then put a spatula across and remove excess, which provides a comparison of seams. The masking tape is removed from the lining after the trowel has completely dried.

How long does it dry?

When all the work on laying the tiles on the floor is already completed, there is a great desire to start walking on a new surface as quickly as possible. Immediately it is worth noting that there are a lot of factors that influence the drying time. Also, the composition of the adhesive affects this process no less.

On the packaging of adhesive formulations, manufacturers always indicate the drying time, but it should be borne in mind that time is extremely conditional, because a lot depends on environmental factors.As for the terms written on the package, after which you can begin to walk freely on the lined surface, it is important to understand that we are talking about some ideal parameters that are very rare in a real environment. For example, a temperature of 20 to 24 degrees without weather changes with a stable humidity of 40 percent.

If the owners of a new coating are lucky and the weather conditions turned out to be favorable, you can walk on the coating after 24 hours. In other cases, you have to wait for the moment when the drying will be complete.

The higher the air temperature in the room, the lining dries faster. However, it is impossible to warm the room artificially using electric heaters, because it can fatally affect the physical characteristics of the tile.

The whole process of drying it, in spite of everything, must take place in its natural environment, even if for some reason it is delayed.

Of course, if you carry out laying work in the summer, the tile will dry much faster than in winter. It is important to remember that the work should be carried out at a temperature of from 20 to 25 degrees.In the warm season, the lining can dry completely in a period of time from 24 to 36 hours, and in winter the time increases by at least 12-16 hours.

Room humidity also plays a significant role. The higher the humidity, the slower the glue dries. If it is very high, then the drying time of the floor can take up to a week, which must be taken into account.

Whatever the associated conditions for drying, you need to learn how to determine whether the glue has dried or not. You can check this with two simple methods. The first is a slight hammering of the tile at the corners. If it remains completely immobile and does not “walk”, the glue is completely dry. The second way - you can just try to detach the tile from the base. It is advisable to conduct a test in the corners, because in these places irregularities are eliminated much easier.

In any case, you need to wait for the glue to dry completely, so as not to damage and move the tile when walking, because it will be very annoying and troublesome to correct defects.

As already noted, under good conditions, the adhesive mixture dries completely within 24 hours. However, depending on its variety, this time may vary.For example, an adhesive designed for lightweight tile is versatile and dries in a period of from seven to fourteen hours. Glue, designed for heavy porcelain and other flooring options, dries from the day and more.

Glue mixtures with a high level of frost resistance, designed for use in outdoor conditions, dry out within 36 hours. Moisture-resistant compounds used in facing walls and floors in baths, saunas and swimming pools dry for a day, ideally, wait two to three days, and white glue for glass tiles is designed for drying up to 36 hours.

Professional Tips

Floor or wall tile flooring looks great anywhere: in an apartment, in an office, in an administrative institution, especially considering the variety of color options and design solutions. It would seem to choose the right tile is very simple, but it is not quite so. The main thing is not to get a low-quality product that can "show" itself not from the best side, even when it will be laid.

Make the right choice, taking into account the characteristics of this coating can be based on the appearance of the product.First of all, the tile material should be smooth to the touch and free from paint.

It is important that there are no cracks and chips on the surfaces: unfortunately, if a lot of material is required, it is easy to miss the defect in the total mass, so you should pay special attention to this.

In order to avoid any difficulties in the process of work with fixation and tight fit of the tile parts to each other, you can attach one part to the other with the purchase. This will help to ensure the absence or presence of coarse gaps, which once again shows the level of quality of the goods. When buying, there is always the opportunity to test tile for sliding with water, wetting the front part. When it comes to choosing a tile for the floor, it should not be slippery to avoid injuries and falls: its surface usually has ribbing and roughness or spraying from corundum chips. Slippery tiles often have a strong shine and are well suited for walls in the bathroom, but not for the floor. Those who have no experience in choosing the material, do not hurt to know about it, so as not to make mistakes in the future.

Of course, no matter what the quality of the tile, you need to buy it with a certain margin, because it is characterized by fragility.Briefly, you can calculate the required amount of material by dividing the floor or wall area by the area of ​​one of the coating samples. Ten or fifteen percent is usually added to a random marriage or “in reserve”.

If you plan to veneer the wall, you can choose a lighter and less thick tile, but in the case of the floor, you should always prefer the heavier and more durable models that are resistant to accidental damage and can adequately withstand different loads.

Before buying, you should be aware of the fact that according to the coefficient of hardness all types of tiles are divided into several levels, each of which corresponds to a specific marking. For example, if you need a tile for the floor, you must choose among the levels from the third to the fifth.

It is no secret that the best and most durable material is granite. At cost, it is more expensive than others, but it is very easy to lay and it lasts much longer than cheaper tile options.

For small kitchen sizes, small-sized tiles will fit, for example, 10x10. If the room is large, you can put a large, so visually the room will look smaller.

The figured tile means that it will be necessary to buy its special form in order to lay out the corners, baseboards and borders beautifully.

Beautiful examples in the interior

Due to the wide variety of ceramic tiles, you can create in your home a unique and inimitable interior that will serve for a long time, pleasing the eye with its unpretentiousness and beauty. Since different collections of tiles are now being produced, combining different types of the same style can create an amazing picture, including with your own hands. If earlier products from ceramics in the form of simple tiles were used only in bathrooms (toilet and bathroom), now this facing material is present everywhere, striking in its diversity and naturalness.

To make the interior stylish and modern, it is allowed to use fragments, not only of various sizes, but also forms, during lining. You can successfully combine with each other large and small tile models, square and rectangular, provided that the quality and design of them will harmoniously complement each other. By the way, the combination between matte and glossy lining will look very impressive anywhere.

A type of tile is now being produced that successfully imitates wood, stone, and brickwork. Such options will ideally look everywhere, especially in the corridor and in any places where there is a high cross and the tendency of the room to increased pollution. A tile with such patterns is unpretentious, there are no stains on it, and all the dirt is very easy to clean with a soft, damp cloth.

Any tile with a “monolithic” name porcelain stoneware can be successfully used, including for facing the street space. If ideal seamless patterns are used, the picture will look most holistic and harmonious, especially if you plan to veneer large surfaces.

It has long been the perfect decoration for bathrooms is considered to be tile, having the form of a mosaic. Of course, its installation is associated with a certain difficulty and thoroughness of the process, but the efforts are worth it: you can lay out a solid mosaic picture or panel, of course, if you have certain skills for this.

Recently, tiles of non-standard sizes and shapes - polygons, hexagons and octahedra, became popular for finishing bathrooms (and not only);as well as other geometric figures, which are the personification of the diversity of modern style decisions. Of course, such styling is complicated and requires the presence of professional craftsmen.

The patchwork technique has been known for a very long time, and in the case of ceramics, it is one of the newest ones, because before that models with a complex ornament were very rare. If you want to design a bathroom or even a country-style living room, you simply cannot find a better option.

As for the already mentioned imitations of tiles under stone, wood or brickwork, all of this has received the name "loft", whose roots are in the United States. If imitation of a plaster or an unprocessed wall is preferred, this can be easily created using tiles. Looking at such a work of art, it is difficult to imagine how much work was invested in its creation, and only a close look and close examination captures the clutch and imitation.

The classic combination of black and white elements is always a win-win. At the same time, it is necessary to conduct a proper assessment of the area of ​​the room and the height of the ceilings so that the overall picture does not look disproportionately and the room or bathroom does not seem smaller than they really are.

There are types of ceramic tiles that have the ability to self-clean due to the fact that they are based on a special chemical composition. Such options are ideal for kitchen rooms with high traffic and the conditions of constant cooking - in catering establishments, canteens, cafes, restaurants.

Simple and concise varieties of ceramics can advantageously highlight the overall picture of the interior. Glossy tiles in the form of hexagons or rhombuses, brilliant mosaic elements, simple models imitated in marble or granite - such solutions will organically fit into any interior style, they will not need to be changed if, for example, you plan to change furniture or curtains.

Elegant and bold Art Deco style implies a difficult combination of patterns with bold geometric shapes and complex patterns that carry ethnic motifs. If an art deco-style tile is large, it will be universal: it can finish both the walls and the floor, and if it is small, it can be used to distinguish, for example, an area near the stove in the kitchen or to revet a fireplace or stove.

The tile of bright colors is not only a bold, but also an effective solution.such an interior will always look rosy, warm and optimistic. Of course, not every owner will decide on such an experiment, but for creative people he is always an advantage, especially when it comes to designing not only the living quarters, but also various art spaces. In this case, the tile will quickly justify its costs: it will not fade like wallpaper, its color will always look bright and catchy. The only difficulty that usually comes across is the selection of furniture, but if you want to bring it to the end, it is always possible to pick it up. One of the simplest solutions - headsets for color or bright tiles are better to buy white, cream or any other tone close to pastel.

Laying tiles is always a difficult process, especially if a person has to perform this work independently for the first time in his life. Of course, looking at a lot of examples that show the most complicated styling options, I want to quickly learn how to do something similar. In the event that a novice master has to deal with the simplest installation option, the result will always please him in the end.

At the present stage, even a simple rectangular tile for a bathroom can be made so beautifully and unusually that it will not take your eyes off when all the work is finally completed.

On how to properly lay the tiles on uneven walls, see the following video.

Information provided for reference purposes. For construction issues, always consult a specialist.

Entrance hall

Living room