Energy-saving lamps

In the modern world, artificial lighting plays a huge role. Electric light surrounds us everywhere: at work, at home, in shopping centers, cafes and restaurants. In the conditions of constantly growing energy consumption and with it the increasing tariff for consumed energy, one has to think about reducing material costs not to the detriment of the quality of room lighting. Energy saving lamps successfully cope with this task.

What it is?

For more than a century, the incandescent light bulb, familiar to everyone, illuminated our apartments, houses and various institutions. But lately, an energy-saving lamp has become increasingly popular. This is the same light bulb, which has a greater light output, compared with a conventional incandescent lamp,and the power consumption is characterized by a smaller value.

The uneconomical and energy-consuming lamp of incandescence has not been in demand for a long time in European countries. In Russia, it was ceased to be released only in 2013.

It was replaced by an energy-saving model, which significantly saves energy.

Characteristic, device and principle of action

For the characteristics of any lamp, regardless of its type, there are certain parameters. These include light output (efficiency), radiation intensity (light temperature) and efficiency.

The lamp consumes a certain amount of energy, measured in watts, and in response emits luminous flux, measured in lumens. At 1 watt of consumed electricity, it emits a certain amount of light. If we take as a basis the usual incandescent lamp of 75 W, then its efficiency will be about 900 Lm. Similar efficiency is at energy saving types at smaller power.

An important parameter is the color temperature, indicating the wavelength emanating from the light-emitting element, measured on the Kelvin scale. With its help you can determine the color of the lamp.The lowest figure for models with soft white light is 2700 K. The average indicator has a value of 4200 K and belongs to the variants with daylight, while the variants with cold white light have the highest indicator - 6400 K.

Another important parameter is the life of the lamp. This value depends on its type and design.

In order to compare all the parameters characterizing different types of energy-saving lamps, it is necessary to refer to the correspondence table.


unit of measurement

Incandescent lamp

Energy-saving lamps

Halogen Luminescent LED light







Light flow


about 900

about 900

about 900

about 900

Light efficiency

Lm / watt





Energy consumption per hour

kW / h





Energy consumption (10 hours of work per day)

Watt / year





Life time


1 000

3 000

3 000

50 000

Each of the energy-saving lamps has its own device.

The easiest device halogen lamp. It is very similar to the incandescent lamp, but has some differences. In the flask is a pair of buffer gas.

A completely different device has Fluorescent Lamp. It has a housing with electronic start-up and power supply circuit connected to a gas-discharge bulb.In the flask there are electrodes located at different ends, an inert gas, which contributes to an increase in the service life of the product, and mercury vapor. Inside this tube is covered with a layer of phosphor.

The principle of its operation is simple. The current goes to the electrodes, which are starting to heat up. When a certain temperature is reached, they emanate a stream of negatively charged elementary particles that collide with mercury atoms. Due to this collision, ultraviolet radiation occurs, which, hitting a phosphor layer, is converted into visible light.

Phosphors are found in different fractions. From the chemical composition, or rather, from the ratio of activators, various types of phosphors are obtained, having their own radiation spectrum. The color of the lamp can take on different shades: blue, pink, yellowish and other colors.

The work of the lamp, namely the walls of the flask is influenced by the ambient air temperature. The fluctuation in temperature leads to a decrease in the luminous flux of the lamp. Standard products do not reduce the luminous flux at air temperature from 15? С to 40? С. The best light output occurs if the temperature is kept within 20-25? C.

The temperature regime for maximum power lamps lies in several other limits.

The light properties of the lamp, whose power has a value of 125 W, do not decrease if the ambient air temperature ranges from -15? C to +10? C. At a deviation from these limits the light stream decreases. The percentage reduction is different and depends on the direction in which the oscillations occur.

LED models are different from the fluorescent types of device. In the flask are LEDs connected in one circuit. In the internal structure is the driver. It is necessary to convert the AC mains voltage to DC. These design features affect the weight of the light bulb, which is in the range of 120-130 g. And this is 5 and sometimes 6 times heavier than an incandescent lamp.

Differences from incandescent bulbs

All bulbs have an efficiency, or efficiency. In energy-saving models, it can reach 80% (depending on the design of a particular model). In a conventional lamp, the efficiency, as a rule, does not exceed 18%. If we take 100 watts of consumed energy as a basis, the incandescent lamp is able to convert only 18 watts, the remaining energy heats the coil.

An important advantage of energy-efficient devices is their durability. The service life of a luminescent, and especially LED, model is several times longer than that of a conventional light bulb. They do not require frequent replacement and therefore they can be safely installed in hard-to-reach places (high ceilings, staircases, niches).

Energy-saving models, compared with conventional incandescent lamps, heat less, and therefore are less flammable. More power and less heat allow them to be installed in the niches of stretch ceilings, chandeliers, wall lamps and other complex structures. The heating temperature of economical options does not reach such limits at which it would be possible to melt the wires and other plastic elements of the cartridge.

The undoubted advantage of economical options is presence of several light shades, thanks to which you can choose a shade at your discretion.

In addition, the presence of different light shades allows them to be used not only at home, but also in various industries.

Unlike incandescent bulbs, there is a guarantee for any energy-saving lamp.

But there are downsides to economical lamps.

The cost of these options is several times higher than the price of incandescent bulbs. But given their lifespan and energy savings, the purchase of energy-saving products is more profitable for the budget.

Some types of energy efficient devices are harmful to health.

First of all, people who have an increased sensitivity to light suffer. Prolonged exposure to energy-saving lamps can exacerbate various skin diseases. Such lamps are also dangerous for people suffering from epilepsy, as they can provoke an attack of migraine and dizziness.

Do not forget about the strobe effect of economical lamps. The intensity of the glow of such a lamp changes a hundred times in 1 second at a current frequency of 50 Hz, that is, the lamp lights up and goes out a hundred times a second (flickers).

Flicker is not noticeable to the human eye, but it has a negative effect on the human brain, as a result of which the actual pattern of movement is distorted.

Fluorescent models contain mercury vapor. Its content ranges from 1-70 mg.


Today there is a wide variety of types of energy-efficient lighting devices.They are divided into products for the home, industrial enterprises and specialized options that perform certain functions.

For industrial and industrial premises, fluorescent light bulbs with a blue tint of light, with high luminous efficiency, whose color temperature does not exceed 6500 K.

For home, most often use compact models with a color temperature not exceeding 6000 K. Lamps of natural light give a soft, sunny-white shade. The color rendition can be good, and can be acceptable, it all depends on the indicated numbers on the package.

The first digit shows the color rendering index. The ideal is considered to be the value of 100, and the closer to this number is the value, the better is the color rendition of the lamp. The remaining two digits indicate the color temperature. Products with the first digit of 8 or 9 have a good color rendition.

Lamps of warm white light can be used both for industrial premises and for home.Specimens emitting white with a pink tint light are used in catering, and emitting warm white light with a yellow tinge are used in residential premises.

For the bedrooms and kitchens are suitable blinking lamps with a color temperature of about 2700 K.

In everyday life lamps can be used in chandeliers and various fixtures. Some species can be equipped with dimmers. These devices are designed to smoothly adjust the brightness of the lighting. Models with dimmers are equipped with a special unit, as manufacturers warn consumers with a special label. Dimmable lamps are very convenient to use, if necessary, the light can be dimmed or vice versa, make it brighter.

For home use, some manufacturers have developed light bulbs that are unusual in shape and function. There are models with built-in different modes, which can be controlled using Wi-Fi. In addition, designers have developed models that do not need a ceiling and chandelier. These lamps have an unusual shape and therefore at the same time are a lamp.

Very often, energy-efficient lighting fixtures flicker when the lights are off.The reasons for this may be several. This phenomenon is associated with a switch with LED illumination. By removing the LED, you can eliminate flicker.

To emphasize the luminous flux, mirror models are used. Most often, these options are used in ceiling, point and table lamps.

There are options for street lighting.

Such lamps must have a high luminous flux and a long service life.


Two types of lamps belong to energy saving light sources: fluorescent and LED. Conventionally, the economical options include halogen models.

Fluorescent models

Luminescent models are divided into linear and compact versions. Both options have an identical principle of action, but differ in some indicators.

Linear models have a larger size, compared with the compact versions, and are divided into straight, ring and U-shaped models.

The direct models are based on a long glass tube with metal rods attached to the ends, thanks to which the tubes are connected to the network using terminals.These devices differ in diameter and length of the pipe, as well as there are differences regarding the width of the base element. The control gear of this variant is located on the body, while for compact models it is located in the base.

As a rule, the power consumption depends on the dimensions of the product. The larger the device, the higher the flow rate. Large-sized devices are used to illuminate production plants, offices, large halls and other rooms.

Compact fluorescent models have a slightly different bulb shape. Typically, this variety is characterized by either an arcuate or a spiral bulb, which can be used in chandeliers and other lamps. Models with a spiral bulb differ from others in higher cost, since the manufacturing technology is somewhat more complicated compared to other fluorescent lamps.

LED options

The most modern light source is the LED lamp, because it consumes the least among energy-efficient devices of electricity and is by far the safest in operation.

In addition to the LEDs, which are located on the board, and the driver, the design of this type includes a radiator that helps cool the LEDs and a diffuser. The last element is necessary for the expansion of the light beam. After all, the angle covering the area when the glow, does not exceed, as a rule, 60 degrees.

Shapes and types of cap

The base is an element of the lamp. With it, it is attached to the cartridge in the lighting device, as well as through the contacts located outside, an electric current is conducted. Socles vary in type and shape.

The most common types include threaded (E) and pin (G) sockets with their own marking. The threaded base meets different sizes, where the last two digits indicate the diameter of the base in millimeters. The most common types are E-27 and E-14. The round shape of the bulb is the most common, but there are lamps with a small base, in which the bulb has a very unusual look. “Candle in the wind” with E14 base suitable for open luminaires without lampshades.

Pin bases have a variety of shapes. Long fluorescent lamps have a small, rounded base, and in compact models, as a rule, they have flat forms of caps. The number of pins varies from 1 to 5 pcs.

The most common two-pin bases, which are often equipped with recessed spotlights.


Economical lamps are used in various industries. As already known, the color of the lamp depends on the phosphor deposited on the inner glass surface of the lamp. But sometimes, in addition to the phosphor layer, the color of the lamp is influenced by the flask itself, which can be made of glass of different colors. Most often, these models are used for decorative color lights.

But there are models that are used only in narrow industries. For example, in forensic science, a model with the help of which allows to detect various biological traces is used. This model belongs to the fluorescent species, but has a significant difference, namely the black color of the flask. The model has its name-Wood's lamp.

Rating of popular brands

On the Russian market are many manufacturers of electrical energy-saving products.

  • The most famous is the Dutch company. Philips, which was one of the first to release powerful, economical lamps for sale. This company produces them in a wide range and excellent quality.
  • German company Osram engaged in the production of lamps since 1985.

Their models are characterized by a long service life and can tolerate a large number of restarts.

  • Companies Navigator and Camelion appeared on the Russian market not so long ago, but already managed to win their consumer. Camelion company produces three types of energy-saving lamps, which are suitable for all types of home lighting products and are sold at an affordable price.

How to choose?

When choosing a lamp you need to take into account many points. First of all, the power of the lamp, the type of lighting device and its location.

The power must match the type of your luminaire, better if it is less than or equal to the declared power of the device. In the built-in spots, the LED variants are more suitable, since they have a slight heating and acceptable power. For a chandelier you should not choose light bulbs above 12 w if it is luminescent and more than 7 w if it is LED.

When selecting a lamp for outdoor lighting, in addition to power, it is necessary to take into account not always the favorable effects of the environment. In the passport manufacturers indicate the level of protection from moisture, ingress of solids, as well as the temperature at which the lamp will work without reducing the luminous flux.

Rules of operation and ways to increase service life

In order to extend the life of the energy-saving lamp, you need to know certain rules.

When mounted in a cartridge, it is better to hold on to the body, especially for fluorescent lamps, the bulb of which is represented by thin tubes. Do not often turn them on and off. Models of small power is better not to turn off or use options that have a dimmer.

Do not install the device in a closed lighting, as there is a possibility of overheating of the lamp, which adversely affects the service life.

The market offers a huge amount of economical lamps at various prices.

Too cheap lamps do not always serve the stated time, and therefore it is better to buy products from well-known brands in specialized stores.

How to dispose?

Any lamp has its lifetime, at the end of which they must be disposed of. The disposal of fluorescent lamps can be difficult. Despite the fact that waste mercury-containing lamps belong to the first class of danger, and not to household waste,in most settlements there are no specialized points for receiving and disposing of these devices.

Since the flask is made of glass, there is a possibility of its damage. A broken fluorescent lamp should be carefully collected in a container with water, wearing gloves beforehand, after which you need to call the Emergencies Ministry, and ventilate the room for several hours.

You will learn more about energy saving lamps in the following video.

Information provided for reference purposes. For construction issues, always consult a specialist.

Entrance hall

Living room