Lighting plays one of the important roles in the life of modern man. With its help, many technological and domestic processes are organized. The design of any lighting device involves the use of special lamps that generate a stream of light.
These mechanisms can operate on the basis of various substances, differing both in composition and in physical parameters. Particular attention among all this diversity should be given to halogen lamps. Products are quite popular and very widely used in modern industry.
What it is?
Halogen lamps are a type of ordinary incandescent lamp. A feature of such structures is the use of special gas fillers instead of ordinary air.The main medium is the gases of the halogen group.
For lamps of this type use several basic substances:
Sometimes the lamp bulb can be filled with a mixture of these components, which allows to obtain better technical indicators. Such a structure can significantly reduce the dimensions of the base.
Such energy-saving incandescent bulbs can be used for lamps and chandeliers, as well as for car headlights.
It should be noted several technical characteristics of this product:
- Lamp power can vary in a very wide range. Today on the market you can find devices with indicators from 1 W to 20 kW. All of them are used to solve specific problems both in everyday life and industry.
- Life time halogen lamp depends on its modification. Often this figure does not exceed 4 thousand hours. Please note that when using the soft start technology, this indicator can be increased up to 12 thousand hours.
- Colour temperature. The lamp is characterized by a good color rendition, which according to the classification is equal to the spectrum index Ra 99-100.This value is found in black bodies that are heated to a temperature of 2800-3000 K.
The warm-up time of the halogen lamp is quite short, which allows you to get a warm luminous flux after a few seconds.
It should be noted that during operation the flask of the device may heat up to very high temperatures. Therefore, it is made of special quartz glass, which can withstand such loads.
The base of the product can be different, which allows you to connect it to different generators of electricity. Some models have special outputs in the form of metallic threads, which need to be connected only with the help of special connectors. As for the luminous flux, this value often depends on the power of the lamp. You can see the approximate figures in the table.
It should be noted that all characteristics of halogen devices may vary slightly depending on the manufacturer and the environment of use.
Principle of operation
Halogen lamps are more advanced modifications of conventional incandescent bulbs.
Such a construction consists of several main components:
- Tungsten filament. This element is performed in the form of a spiral, which allows to increase the working area of the system. In this way, much more light is produced than a straight thread would generate. The occurrence of light radiation occurs due to the passage of current through tungsten. This causes the metal to generate photons, which are released into the external environment.
- Gas filler. As already mentioned, halogen substances are used in such lamps. This component solves several problems at once. First of all, the gas prevents the rapid evaporation of the tungsten filament, which may eventually lead to its destruction. Also, the filler “causes” evaporated tungsten to settle back onto the coil. This is achieved through special chemical reactions into which the components enter.
Please note that in such a lamp the walls do not grow dull, since practically nothing settles on them.
At the same time in a small flask can pump gas under high pressure. This, in turn, also extends the life of the product several times.
Advantages and disadvantages
The popularity of halogen lamps is increasing every day. This is achieved due to their many advantages:
- Efficiency. A similar effect is achieved due to high-quality light output. So, for example, devices of this type allocate from 15 to 22 lm per watt of power. In turn, for standard incandescent bulbs this value does not exceed 12 lm / W. Therefore, using halogen counterparts, you can save almost two times more electricity. Please note that these indicators may improve over time, which also depends on the specific manufacturer.
- Life time. The use of halogens made it possible to significantly increase this indicator in comparison with classical analogs. The average duration of operation for a halogen lamp is at least 2-5 thousand working hours.
- Radiation indicators. Lamps of this type generate a warm luminous flux, which in terms of indicators may resemble solar radiation. Today, the radiation spectrum of these devices can vary, which allows you to choose it for any interior style and working conditions.
- Dimensions. Technical features of halogen lamps today are very diverse. They can be as huge for street lighting, and very small, which allows you to install them on vehicles.
But halogen lamps are not a unique solution to all problems of this kind.
These products have many drawbacks, among which are:
- Minimal resistance to moisture. This is due to the structure of quartz glass, which acts as a protective. But today, this problem is quite easily solved with the help of external flasks of glass or other material. They play the role of a buffer and do not allow moisture to penetrate to the lamp itself.
- High heating temperature. This leads to the fact that the lamp can cause ignition of closely located elements. Therefore, they are not recommended to be used near substances that can easily catch fire. This feature is also important to consider when replacing the lamp. Perform all operations necessary only after the entire system has cooled down.
- The bulb is very sensitive to dirt. Such phenomena can lead to a rapid failure of the system. Therefore, it is desirable to perform all operations with these devices only in special gloves.
- High price. This is due to the fact that the production of such a system is a rather labor-intensive process. Therefore, many may use other alternative sources instead of halogen modifications.
What is better than LED?
The market of lighting devices is rapidly developing today, which leads to the appearance of many modifications of lighting lamps. One of the competitors halogen light sources are LED models. Every year they occupy an increasing niche, as they have many advantages over other products.
But halogen lamps still have several significant advantages in front of LED counterparts:
- Cost The price of LED modifications is several times higher than on the device based on the filament.
- Light spectrum. Many owners note warm radiation from halogen models. The light from them has a pleasant yellowish tint, which is not so cut into the eyes. LED models often work in the cold spectrum, which requires little time adaptation to such lighting. Halogen devices also distribute light more evenly, while LED counterparts cannot boast of it.
- Direct connection. Halogen devices can operate from a conventional electrical network, which eliminates the use of step-down transformers. In the case of LEDs, one cannot do without these constructions.
As for the other technical parameters, LED lamps have a complete advantage here. They consume much less energy, and also do not heat so much that they can be installed even on suspended ceilings. At the same time, the lamp does not contain gases that can, at high concentrations, affect the human body.
The use of halogen lamps is very wide, which has led to the emergence of a large number of their types. This product can be classified according to several criteria, among which the type of hull is considered one of the main ones:
- Lamps with external bulb. These are the most common household modifications. Outwardly, they resemble an ordinary incandescent lamp. But at the same time the design consists of two flasks. One of them is external and is protective, while inside the second is a tungsten filament and a filler gas. This design eliminates the direct impact on the quartz glass bulb. Products of this type are equipped with base plates, allowing them to be screwed into standard cartridges on chandeliers or lamps. On the market there are two types of bases - E27 and E14.As for the external flasks, they can be either transparent or with a matte or milky finish.
- Linear. Externally, the mechanism consists of a long quartz tube, which is equipped with two contacts at each of the ends. In such devices use the base models R7s. Lamps of this type quite well withstand mechanical stress. But at the same time, many modifications should be installed only in the horizontal plane. This is one of the disadvantages of this product. They are used as sources of flood light.
- With reflector. These products are completed with a special frame on which an aluminum or infrared reflector is applied. The bulb itself with a tungsten filament is located in the center of the product. Lamps of this type are very often conical. The reflector system allows you to direct the flow of light to the desired point. The upper part of the body is covered with transparent glass, which can sometimes additionally be applied UV filter. Products of high brightness are often used only in low-voltage networks. Therefore, almost all types of reflector lamps can operate on a voltage of 12-24 V.Manufacturers complement them with several types of caps - GY *, GZ *, GU *, G9 and G10.
This product is today one of the most popular. Reflector lamps are very often used to organize spot and zonal room lighting.
- Capsule. These lamps are small in size, since the design itself consists directly of a bulb of two terminals for connection. Because of their low power, they emit some light. Therefore, they are very often used for decorative purposes (lighting shelves, etc.). It should be noted that these lamps are very weakly heated. Some designers with their help create lighting furniture designs to create practicality. The products are complemented by several types of bases, among which the most common are GY6, 35, G4, and G9.
Another classification of halogen lamps is network specifications.
There are 2 types of such structures:
- High Voltage. Lamps can be connected directly to a standard 220V network. To do this, they just need to be screwed or plugged into the socket. Often these modifications include two-part modifications, which are complemented by standard plinths.
- Low voltage. This type of product is the most common.They operate in the network at a voltage not exceeding 24 V. Connection of such systems is carried out only with the help of special step-down transformers. Lamps of this type do not emit a lot of heat, so they can be used almost anywhere. Very often they are completed with small chandeliers.
The variety of halogen lamps is very wide.
The dimensions of such products depend mainly on the type of design:
- Lamps based on two flasks or with a reflector have practically the same dimensions as a standard incandescent lamp. The shape may be slightly different, which already depends on the manufacturer.
- Flask or finger models are small flat products, the length of which can reach 1-2 cm. Thickness and width depends on the type of installed base.
The luminous flux of each fixture is different color temperature. This indicator indicates which spectrum of light is present in the beam. Halogen lamps often generate a stream in the yellow spectrum.
Today on the market there are several types of such lamps:
The last three light streams are quite rare, since this spectrum is not classical. To achieve a similar glow, many manufacturers change the structure and technical characteristics of lamps.
Technical characteristics of halogen lamps do not allow to operate them everywhere. But today the environment of their use is quite wide. On the market you can find products for the home as a ceiling lamps, and light bulbs for chandeliers, wall lamps or floor lamps. Products are perfect for spotlights, as it can be connected to the network without step-down transformers.
It is very rare to find lamps that are intended for suspended ceilings. But spotlights can be complemented by low-power light sources, although they are gradually being supplanted by devices based on LEDs.
Lamps for the bathroom are complemented by special protective covers, since the flask is not designed to work in a humid environment.
The modern market is saturated with a large number of halogen bulbs that can be used to solve various problems.
Among all this diversity, there are several popular manufacturers:
- Philips. The company is one of the leaders in this field. It produces both standard lamps and devices for cars. The products are of high quality and reliability. Many users prefer only this brand.
- Osram. Specialists of the company pay much attention to the quality of products. Light bulbs are constantly tested for physical effects in order to minimize their damage.
How to choose?
When purchasing this product, several parameters should be evaluated:
- Power and light output. The lamp should give a luminous flux of such strength that is enough for a particular room.
- Voltage. It is important here whether you plan to connect the device directly to the network or use step-down transformers. Note that low-voltage varieties consume much less energy.
- Type of cap. It all depends on the device for which you pick up the lamp. Before you buy it, you need to familiarize yourself with the technical characteristics of the old model.
Features of operation
Proper use of a halogen lamp can significantly prolong its life. One of the detrimental factors that affect life is fat. This applies not only to the kitchen, which is formed in the air during frying, but also the substance that is on human hands. Therefore, replace the lamp should only be in special gloves. If you want to eliminate this factor, then you can use double-shell products.
Many experts recommend approximately once every six months to wipe the lamp feet with alcohol to remove carbon deposits. To undergo a similar procedure you need glass and grooves where the construction is fixed.
If the device fails, it must be disposed of, as in the composition there are harmful substances that are bad for humans and the environment. Therefore, in the case of breakdowns, such products must be handed over to special organizations that know its properties and process it correctly.
What you should pay attention when buying a halogen lamp, see the following video.