All kinds of incandescent bulbs
Good old incandescent bulbs, which were once in great demand and were in every home, today are again gaining popularity and becoming relevant, despite the fact that the production of such products is gradually eroding. Many buyers choose such sources of lighting due to their durability.
It is not uncommon for old light bulbs left over from grandparents serve for 5-10 years. Most consumers believe that modern options cannot boast of such a lifetime, so the selection of light bulbs should be approached, knowing all their nuances and peculiarities.
The history of the invention of incandescent bulbs began back in 1840, when the Englishman to the Department invented the world's first incandescent lamp, which has a spiral of platinum.By 1874, Russian engineer Alexander Lodygin received a patent for a filament-type lamp. In this model, the carbon rod in a vacuum vessel acted as a heat. Such lighting devices were improved in 1875 by VF Didrichson. He pumped all the air out of them and applied a small amount of hair.
In the 70s and 80s of the XIX century, the American inventor Thomas Edison was engaged in research to improve incandescent lamps and developed models that could work for at least 40 hours. At that time, such devices were a real sensation and quickly gained widespread popularity.
Over time, incandescent bulbs were constantly improved and in 1910, William Coolidge invented a more advanced method of manufacturing with a special tungsten filament. A little later, this part supplanted the former types of threads.
These lights are used not only as a source of light, but also as a decorative element of the interior.
The principle of operation of such lighting devices is based on the heating of the filament body with the help of charged particles.Such a metal as tungsten has the highest melting point, so it is used in the construction of such light bulbs. This material in this case is in the form of a wire, coiled into a spiral.
Also in the design of incandescent bulbs are such details as the bulb, holder and current inputs. To prevent tungsten from oxidizing, the filament body is isolated in a closed glass vessel that is filled with a substance such as an inert gas. Most often, argon is chosen for this, but krypton or even nitrogen is quite suitable. In flasks from glass there is always a special holder necessary for the filament body. With the help of a closed cap to this part are the necessary electrodes. Also in this design there are special molybdenum holder hooks that are constantly in contact with a spiral of tungsten.
It is also worth noting that in all incandescent bulbs there is such an important detail as a base. Such components are absent only in special versions for car lighting. Both in the Russian and European markets there are incandescent lamps in which the base has a thread.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any other lighting device, the incandescent bulb has its own advantages and disadvantages.
To get started, let's get acquainted with the advantages of such products:
- The main advantage of incandescent bulbs is their low cost. Today, there are many different types of lamps in stores, but the most affordable ones are the good old Ilyich lamps;
- In addition, these products instantly turn on and off. You do not have to wait until they heat up and catch on fire;
- Such light sources work not only from direct, but also alternating current;
- Many consumers say that these bulbs do not flicker, and this means that they do not adversely affect the eyesight and the general condition of the household;
- Incandescent bulbs can boast an unsurpassed level of color reproduction;
- In many cases, you can independently change the power of the luminous flux. To do this, just stock up on a special dimmer.
Despite a considerable number of advantages, such lighting fixtures have their own drawbacks.
These include the following:
- Not the longest service life. This is especially true of modern incandescent bulbs;
- In addition, such sources of illumination are not the most economical, so with their regular use by the end of the month, bills with a rather large amount can come;
- It is worth noting the fact that incandescent bulbs are “afraid” of power surges. Often, such events lead to their burnout.
The main technical properties of incandescent bulbs are the following parameters.
Unfortunately, incandescent bulbs can not boast a long service life. In this matter, they are inferior to almost all other types of lamps. Similar problems are connected with the filament that is in the inner part of the gas-filled bulb. Such parts wear out pretty quickly and stop working. It should be borne in mind that the main power of the luminous flux of such bulbs is in an infrared field invisible to the human eye. In the process of burning the material evaporates from such light bulbs, because of this the tungsten string becomes thinner and once it breaks.
It is also worth mentioning that in conditions of temperature extremes such light sources can fail.
Color transfer and temperature
The temperature of the light bulbs has only one manifestation, in contrast to the LED-options. However, it is impossible not to notice that the lighting from the Ilyich bulb comes out warm and very comfortable. Its shade is close to light yellow. Under the color rendering refers to the level of conformity of the natural color of the object and its hue under the "rays" of artificial lighting. In this regard, the color spectrum is at least 100%.
This factor is mainly influenced by the power of the incandescent bulb. This parameter is determined by watts. For example, with a product power of 50 watts, the level of power consumption will be 50 watts / hour. If the power of a light bulb is 100 W, then it will consume twice as much energy. As a rule, these bulbs work at least 6-7 hours a day. It turns out that one device with a power of 100 watts per day will consume about 700 watts.
The light part in the incandescent bulb is connected to the device due to a special functional element called the base. Similar parts have different design and structure, but the most common are the variants of Edison, having a thread.On the packaging of these components are denoted by the letters "E" or "K". To these values, as a rule, are added figures indicating the diameter of the base. The most common currently are the parts that have the following markings: "E14", "E27", as well as "E40". Some modern light bulbs are complemented by an “G” type cap. Such a detail has a structure similar to two small pins with contacts.
In order to make the light emission of the device more powerful and bright, an inert gas is used in the manufacture of incandescent bulbs. They are filled with a glass flask. In the course of burning this filler creates a saturated luminescence. Of course, not only inert gas, but also a mixture of nitrogen or argon is pumped into Ilyich bulbs. Such filling creates a minimum level of illumination.
In expensive copies in the inner part of the flask is xenon or krypton. Such substances are characterized by weak thermal conductivity, so that the light output from the device is stronger.
There are several varieties of incandescent bulbs.
Consider them in more detail.
- Vacuum. Such lighting devices are among the most simple and common. These ordinary models are called Edison bulbs. In their inner part there is a thread of metal or tungsten. When heated, such parts emit light;
- Argon. Such incandescent bulbs have argon in the inner part of the bulb. It is often combined with nitrogen. Similar options are also called nitrogen-argon;
- Krypton. These models are largely repeated argon, but in them the flasks are filled with krypton, which allows the bulb to produce a brighter and more saturated emission spectrum;
- Xenon. Such bulbs are one of the brightest and saturated. Light from them comes in the process of burning xenon.
Also, incandescent bulbs are divided by their main purpose.
- General purpose. These are the most simple light bulbs that can be used for both basic and decorative lighting. These types of lamps are often equipped with modern built-in structures. However, nowadays many consumers refuse to buy such products, as they consume too much electricity.The main technical qualities of such models can be found in the tables below;
- Decorative. As a rule, in such products the flask has an intricate and unusual shape, far from the usual options. The most common and popular models are candles;
- Local lighting. This type of lighting is most often used for handheld lighting or in industrial environments. These devices do not consume much energy and have low voltage;
- Illumination. Such lighting devices, as a rule, have bright colors and look very elegant. These variants are painted by coating the outer surface with a special varnish. However, it is worth noting that this finish is not the most durable. Also, many manufacturers use a more practical method of applying paint by color spraying in the inner part of the vessel;
- Mirror or reflex. Such specimens are ideal for localizing luminous flux, since in them one part is always covered with a special reflective mirror layer (silver-coated).Such bulbs are often used to illuminate shop windows, shelves and other similar objects;
- Searchlight. This name is an electric lamp, characterized by high voltage and powerful light output. As a rule, similar options are used for street lighting. Most of them are dust and moisture proof, which makes them durable and wear-resistant. Often in such lighting devices are motion sensors;
- Transport. These special-purpose bulbs are used on various vehicles. They are also resistant to moisture and dust;
- Designer. Otherwise, such options are called interior. These bulbs are suitable for home furnishings. For street lighting, they hardly fit;
- Flickering. In such cases, a special bimetallic switch is installed in series with the filament, due to which the light bulbs operate in a flickering mode.
Dimmers and motion sensors
Dimmer is a dimmer control in the house. As a rule, this item is controlled by the remote control. It can be both push-button and touch.Using such a device, you can extend the life of an incandescent lamp by "softening" the light and the sharpness of its inclusion.
All dimmers are divided into two types:
Such a useful dimmer is rarely bundled with any lighting fixtures. As a rule, you need to buy it separately. Equipped with such lamps and motion sensors. These parts are most often used in street lighting. Such devices notify the owners of the dwelling about the penetration of an outside person or an animal into their territory with the help of light.
Some time after the object is removed from the sensor's “field of view”, the light goes out, which is a very economical solution.
Forms and sizes
The most popular and beautiful are the following forms of lighting with incandescent bulbs.
- Leaf form;
- Spiral options;
- Candle shape in the wind;
- Spherical and tubular specimens;
- In the form of a maple leaf;
- Flowers and plants;
- Christmas trees;
The sizes of such lighting devices can be different. If you are looking for an easy and mobile option for a small room, then it is better to give preference to mini-lamps,low weight and unobtrusive design. Their shape can be very different, from round to angular and long. In most cases, the diameter of the rounded options is as small as the model as a whole.
If you are looking for a large and good-quality model in a spacious room, then miniature fixtures are unlikely to suit you. In such conditions, you can put a more impressive lamp of the original form.
Of course, the right choice of lighting fixture depends on the interior style and taste preferences of the owners.
On incandescent bulbs are often applied not only the mirror, but also color deposition. For example, it can be the following colors: blue, orange, red, white, yellow, green, purple, gold, silver, hot pink, colorless matte.
Incandescent bulbs and style solutions
Retro style lamps are distinguished by the nontrivial shape of a tungsten filament. Often these models have impressive size and considerable weight. They can be used not only in retro-interiors, but also in vintage and even classical ensembles. Vintage lamps can have both rounded and elongated shapes.In such models there are often foundations of aged metals. It can also be a beautiful imitation of bronze, stylized antique.
Lamps with angular details and a spiral tungsten filament will look great in the "attic" style loft. In modern interiors (hi-tech, minimalism), the lamps on the cord or the rails will perfectly fit. They can be supplemented with chrome or matte metal shades.
Should list several popular firms, producing beautiful and high-quality incandescent bulbs:
- OJSC “V. A. V.S. ”(Russia);
- Online (Russia);
- Svetlov (Russia);
- Economics (Russia);
- Tungsram (Hungary);
- Philips (Netherlands);
- OJSC “Brest Electro-Lamp Plant” (Belarus).
Modern incandescent bulbs can be used in any conditions, be it a living room or a garden plot. So, the most common today are recessed spotlights due to its small size. Such models can be installed in any ceiling: stretch or suspended.
Often incandescent bulbs are installed in elegant wall sconces, and they can be in the house and beyond.For street lighting is to choose a sealed lamp, which will not be afraid of rain, wind and temperature changes.
Incandescent bulbs can also be installed on ceiling chandeliers. They can have a lot of horns, and for each of them you should buy a light bulb. During operation, such an item will not be the most economical, but it will give the household a pleasant and warm light.
Incandescent bulbs are used to illuminate terrariums. For example, it may be the dwelling of small turtles or hamsters. For industrial and fire hazardous premises, it is recommended to select local lighting. Sometimes incandescent bulbs can be found in the clock - such a design solution is able to take on the role of a bright accent of the interior.
How to choose?
Before you buy an incandescent lamp, weigh all the pros and cons that it possesses. Yes, it gives a pleasant and non-irritating light, but it is absolutely uneconomical and consumes a lot of electricity. Decide on the power of the device. Do not forget that the more powerful the light bulb, the more electricity it will consume. If you want to bring into the interior a beautiful and original product, then refer to the figured variants of interesting shapes (candles, Christmas trees or leaves).
Try to contact only proven and well-known manufacturers. Thus, the risk of acquiring a light bulb that will burn in the very first hours after a purchase is significantly reduced.
How to prolong life?
Each inclusion of such bulbs is a great stress for them, as the resistance level sharply increases inside their flasks, thinning the springs. To extend the life of the incandescent lamp is possible only with a special dimmer or dimmer switch. Such devices provide a smoother inclusion of the light bulb, which has a positive effect on its service life. In addition, it is not recommended to install such models in rooms prone to temperature extremes.
How to dispose?
When deciding how to dispose of light bulbs that have lost consumer properties, it should be remembered that they often contain inert gas. It is not so dangerous to human health, but still requires disposal. To do this, collect all the non-working light bulbs and take them to a special reception point. There are such in every big city. In these organizations, experts conduct safe disposal of light bulbs.
Fashionable and beautiful interiors
Incandescent bulbs look great in many styles. They can be both strict and solid, and elegant and fun.
The first option can be attributed to discreet lamps, which are often found in offices or elegant living rooms. As for the more positive and "windy" models, then they can include multicolored garlands of lamps.
Properly selected lamps look good in the kitchen. They can also be placed in the bedroom, in the area near the bed. For this, it is better to choose low-key and harmonious models.
How to make a retro garland of incandescent bulbs with your own hands, see below.