Decorative lighting lamps
In the modern world, a stylish image, taste, elegance and functionality are of paramount importance in the interior and space. This can not be achieved without the latest technology that can bring in our home livability and convenience. The main element in the design of any room is the lighting and the right choice of lamps, which will give a special atmosphere and comfort to the room.
Varieties and Characteristics
It is known that light is vital for everyone without exception, because it is thanks to him and solar energy that all living organisms on our planet develop. A long way from kerosene lamps to modern electric passed mankind. During this period, light sources have acquired many varieties:
- ordinary electric incandescent lamp with a metal spiral inside the bulb (known from Soviet history as the “Ilyich lamp”), invented and patented by the American Thomas Edison at the end of the 19th century, is the most widely used type. The light from it resembles a warm sunny because of the predominance of yellow tones of the spectrum of the glow. It is very easy to use, but has a very short lifespan and consumes a lot of energy, is also very sensitive to voltage fluctuations, therefore it is practically not used in design, but it is widely used in general lighting, being the cheapest option for home;
- energy saving (most often luminescent). Such sources have become very popular because of their cost-effectiveness, because they allow to significantly reduce energy costs, while possessing a high luminous efficiency. With indisputable advantages, it is impossible not to note some of the disadvantages: first, these are mercury vapors contained in the flask and ensuring the normal operation of such lamps.Secondly, the ultraviolet light that is emitted during the operation of this lamp has a detrimental effect on our vision. But recently, this problem has been reduced with the help of a special coating applied to the inside of the flask and absorbing most of the harmful radiation. There is a wide variety of these types of sources for decorative use;
- halogen lamps they are modernized incandescent lamps, in which the helix is heated to higher temperatures, which makes it possible to obtain more light emission. Its service life is four times longer than an ordinary incandescent lamp and is about 4 thousand hours. Due to their small size, they are often used as spotlights for suspended ceilings and furniture;
- LED light also called energy-saving, but surpass them in their performance. The service life of these devices is almost 3 times longer and reaches one hundred thousand hours with almost one hundred percent light output. They are also very safe, are the most environmentally friendly lighting devices, do not emit ultraviolet light and do not heat up during operation.The field of their application has significantly expanded since the moment of creation: from indicator lights in electronic structures to lighting devices in automobiles and to full-fledged sources of decorative light in the interior.
Each of the presented types of lamps may have special characteristics. For example, light bulbs with motion sensors that provide switching on and off of light sources in a certain period of time (with the onset of darkness or in an unlit room) and when moving objects in the zone of the sensor. When the fixation of the movement of people, cars and other objects in the area ceases, the light turns off. Most often, such electrical appliances are installed in street lighting, at house entrances, at industrial enterprises.
Such sensors are suitable for almost all types of lamps, but the most economical ones are, of course, LED. The variety of sensors makes it possible even to control the intensity of illumination - these are dimmable lamps, with the help of which the power of the light source is regulated thanks to a specially built-in device (dimmer).Dimmer allows you to change the luminous flux from 10 to 100%. These original devices help to provide comfort and give an incredible atmosphere throughout the interior.
If for some reason it is impossible to connect to the local power grid, the cordless LED lamp on batteries will always help out.
Such lamps have become very popular all over the world due to mass use in any conditions and situations. There are also special furniture, wall, hanging lights on batteries, which work for a long time, decorating and lighting your space.
How to choose?
When choosing a lamp or chandelier, it is necessary to focus on which lamps will be compatible with them. There are differences in shape, size, power and base, through which the lamp source is inserted into the cartridge and it receives an electric current. Typically, the base material is metal, ceramic or plastic.
Each lighting source has from one to several rounds with a fastener adapted for this particular model.
Types of socles
In the electrics presented a lot of samples and modifications socles.In everyday life, we usually deal with two main groups: threaded (which happens more often) and pin.
The screw has a screw connection with a chuck and is marked with the Latin letter E. It is this type that is the most common in everyday life. The number that follows shows the size of the base (thread diameter). Most often light bulbs for an apartment have two connection parameters - E27 (the most famous one, which is used not only in incandescent lamps, but also in energy-saving types) and E14 is an E27 variant, but with a smaller diameter, called a “minion”. There are different forms: ball, mirror, "pear", "drop", "candle", "mushroom". For more powerful lamps, for example, when lighting streets (in searchlights, street lamps), industrial enterprises, shopping centers, the E40 base (“goliath”) is used.
Other variants of screw caps are presented in the table: (see table)
In some countries, for example, Canada and the USA, due to the mains voltage of 110 V, the parameters of the screw samples are not identical to European standards. And, respectively, the diameter is specific: E12, E17, E26, E39.
Pin base with two metal pin contacts connecting the lamp to the socket.Marked by the Latin letter G, and the number behind it indicates the distance between the contacts, for example, G4, G9. There are additional designations (X, U, Y, Z) which are divided into modifications of these samples. We must not forget that these species are not interchangeable.
In more detail about pin types - in the table: (see the table)
Type G4 is used in miniature halogen lamps at a voltage of 12/24 V. Designed for decoration and spotlights.
Sample G5 is operated in gas-discharge (luminescent) sources with a tubular flask with a diameter of 16mm.
Special modifications GU5.3 made for advanced types of energy-saving LED lamps, which favorably highlight ceilings, shop windows.
Special design - GU10 with thickened pins, which for installation in the cartridge is scrolled until the lamp is completely locked in the lock. It is used in places where ordinary lamps without proper fastening can fall out (for example, in suspended ceilings).
In addition to the above, there are quite rare samples of socles:
- R - with recessed contact (designed for high power, used in high-intensity devices and operating in AC networks);
- S - soffit, having two-sided contacts, which are installed like fuses (used to illuminate automobile salons and license plates, when illuminating mirrors, equipment for scenes in theaters and concert halls, as well as in lighting fixtures of hotels, restaurants, bars);
- B - pin (bayonet, from the French. The word "bayonet") - have round pins, convenient for installation in the grooves of the cartridge, which are scrolled, fixing the lamp. Created for the procedure of quick change of light bulbs. A subtype BA has been created in which the contacts are located asymmetrically, which is why the lamp is mounted in the holder in a certain position, allowing the light flux of car lights (and headlights to correct the dipped and main beam) and navigation lights to be perfectly focused.
- F - single-pin, common in three subtypes: cylinder, grooved on the surface, special in shape;
- P - focusing - used in super-powered spotlights and lanterns, indispensable in film projectors, navigation lights. Inside these bases, a collecting lens is installed, directing the flow of light in a certain direction;
- T - telephone - are intended for indicator lights, remote controls, electronic components, signaling devices in the control panels.
Also, when choosing any light source, one should be guided not only by its aesthetic qualities, but also predict how well this option will look in the interior of one or another space.
Lamps must meet all safety requirements and be made of refractory materials. Basically, it is porcelain, metal, crystal and heat-resistant plastic. Many designers like to use wood, fabric and even paper, but such products are fragile and not always reliable, they should be kept away from flammable objects.
Plastic devices are quite durable and safe, unpretentious in care and will delight you for a long time.
Glass and crystal lamps are most in demand. They are very reliable, fire resistant and practical. In addition, they have high aesthetics and harmoniously fit into the design of the home.
Types of glass
Glass is one of the widely used materials for lighting.Currently, there are more than five hundred of its species for the manufacture of lamps. Here are some of them:
- clear glass ideally passes light, is used in various plafonds and reflectors;
- frosted glass allows you to get a soft light without bright highlights, which perfectly relaxes and soothes the eyes and nervous system;
- colored glass introduces an element of joy, cheerfulness, good mood;
- mirror glass give the interior a mysterious and at the same time modern look.
How to arrange?
In order not to be mistaken with the dimensions of the lamp, it is necessary to clearly understand the dimensions of the room. Light sources come in various sizes: from miniature light bulbs to large shades. Small lamps fit perfectly into small low-ceiling rooms and should be installed in sufficient quantities. You can apply diverse options that attract attention to themselves, distract him from some of the shortcomings of a small room. Bulky appliances are more suitable in spacious rooms with high ceilings.
It is always appropriate for walls to adapt small sconce sources.Mirrors will look perfect in the frame of special devices with a focused light source. The dining area in the kitchen will be functional with sconces having a direct, downward luminous flux.
The accompanying light with a balloon in the form of a ball will create a uniform illumination and give originality thanks to the matte or colored glass.
Any lounge needs calm, subdued lighting for relaxation after work. For this case, the bedroom as the best fit floor lamps. It will be interesting to watch floor lamps of various sizes. It is appropriate to place them in the darkened corners of the room to highlight these areas, due to which the room will visually look larger.
In a small room you can try to install a floor lamp with a voluminous lamp shade, which will create additional space and comfort.
Wall sconces by the bed or floor and table lamps are ideal for the bedroom. A dressing table with a mirror can be framed with a pair of point electrical appliances.
In the kitchen, you can combine several sources, each covering their own zone. To this end, the spotlights will fall in the best possible way.The center will look good original ceiling or lampshade.
The living room should be bright, bright and modern. Here are receptions, various family celebrations. A large chandelier equipped with many bulbs will look very bold and aesthetically pleasing.
For zone accents, it is appropriate to place point lamps.
In a small room, functional areas can be distinguished not only with light, but with color:
- to accent any object with the collected light beam;
- allocate separate spaces with color lighting, placing several light bulbs under the ceiling, which should be colored, and concentrating them in one place;
- to adapt different lamps for their areas with a different color of lamps.
Lamp shades can also be colored, but be sure to blend in with the overall decor. But for the styles of modern and high-tech devices fit clear colors - black and white.
Any home should look aesthetically pleasing, fashionable, individually. It helps to create a positive mood, get satisfaction from home activities, makes the rest in it pleasant and relaxing.Interior lamps will give your home a unique elegance, charm, make the room truly irresistible. Today, designers offer a huge selection of styles, colors, sizes, shapes that can completely transform your room, living room, bedroom. Whatever style you prefer, remember one thing: the colors of the chandelier, the luminaire or the lampshade and their bases should be the same.
The studio apartment needs to be divided by zone and correctly selected for each part its own version of the light bulb. In the kitchen-dining room there will be lampshades over the table with long decorative cords.
Classic style in the design of the room inherent simplicity and elegance. Lamps should be capacious, without too much creativity, with a minimum of decorations. The main thing to highlight the aesthetics and style of the interior.
If you are a follower hi-tech style, choose glass or plastic lamps with an abundance of shiny and metal elements, spherical and trapezoidal, which successfully emphasize the style. Particularly relevant LED strip.
In the 20s - 30s of the last century was born art deco stylewhich has not lost its relevance almost a hundred years later. The main emphasis is on regular geometric shapes: spherical, cubic, polyhedra. Such lamps are sometimes compared with the ancient Egyptian pyramids.
For those who appreciate style minimalism color delights and pretentiousness are not acceptable. The predominant colors are moderate - gray, white. Simplicity, ease and uncomplicated geometry are the main criteria for such fixtures.
Lovers of country style lamps made of wood and fabrics that you can do with your own hands will please. By painting them into rural motifs, you can create additional coziness and comfort in any space.
Bright and bold modern style expensive materials are inherent: quartz, marble, leather, natural wood, glass, semi-precious stones and inlay. All variants are mostly handmade and not designed for mass production.
The original direction of bionics (from the word "bio") appeared in the 70-80s of the last century and expresses unity with nature. Lamps in this style - fancy shapes: sea creatures, bouquets of leaves, flowers, silhouettes of animals, insects ...
Deconstruction style lovers of virtual reality and computer innovation will appreciate. Neon lights and LED strip create optical illusions, transfer the imagination to another space.
Style "irony"appeared at the end of the past century, characterized by ease, humor, carelessness. Modern options with spotlights will appeal to children and perfectly fit into any nursery.
Eclectic style allows you to mix multiple styles and options, making the modern room even more bold, bright and individual. The main thing - do not overdo it and do everything with taste, if necessary, trusting an experienced stylist. Often, many designers use the original version of one or more styles.
The clock on the lamps is a new trend in the display of time. The unusualness of these models is that the display, reproduction and countdown is performed using gas discharge lamps. These are retro-indicators, produced in large quantities in the 70s-80s of the 20th century, both Soviet-made and foreign. Used primarily in watches and measurement technology (easily recognizable vacuum tubes).Experts believe that these lamps are able to work another 15-20 years without losing brightness.
Such watches are distinguished by exceptional accuracy and clarity, you can program the mode of displaying the date and time, set the timer, just two alarms. Such models are assembled by ordinary radio amateurs, experimenting with size, shape, design.
You can buy them in specialized online stores.