The market for electrical products is huge. Each buyer can choose what suits him most. Often acquire fluorescent lamps - a relative novelty among similar products.
What it is, advantages and disadvantages
More recently, buyers are actively interested in energy-saving lamps. These devices are so called because in comparison with incandescent lamps they are more economical. They are suitable for almost all chandeliers, therefore, are popular. In addition to this feature, the product has many advantages that play an important role in the purchase.
So these lamps:
- Significantly reduce energy consumption. Buyers will notice the difference with incandescent bulbs after they receive a “payment” for the light at the end of the month.
- Serve a very long time. The lamp can work for about 15 thousand hours. But it is very individual, as some devices shine longer, some - less.
- Practically do not heat up. The burn is quite difficult to get.
- These devices are much cheaper than LED, but more expensive incandescent bulbs. It is worth noting that the use of fluorescent lamps - a more economical option than others. One such device can last longer than a dozen incandescent bulbs - despite the fact that the cost will be related as 1 to 10.
But these lighting devices are not without drawbacks. For some, they will serve as a reason to refuse to use, while for others, they will outweigh the advantages.
The disadvantages are as follows:
- It is based on ultraviolet light, but its effect is excluded because the intensity is thousands of times lower than that of sunlight.
- In contrast to incandescent lamps and LED devices, the scope of application of such devices is more limited.
- Compared with LED - such devices are more fragile.
You can choose a lamp to any interior, as modern manufacturers offer a variety of shapes and characteristics of the product.Modern models come in different sizes, capacities.
The longer the tube, the greater its power. If we compare the spiral and U-shaped variants, then they will be equal in power, although the first version is more compact.
This indicator is measured in Kelvin. Usually on the package with the lamp indicated this value. The warmest white light has a temperature of 2700 K, just warm white (TB) - 3000 K. Natural light (E) - 4000 K, cold white (CB) - more than 5000 K. This is the so-called daylight.
If the characteristic is below 5000 K, then the light will turn out with a reddish tinge. If the temperature exceeds 5000 K, the color of the light will turn green.
A very important indicator, without the knowledge of which it is difficult to find a suitable light bulb, as there is a risk to buy a product with a too large or small base. The material from which the lamps are made is the same, but there is a difference in size. An indication of which base is required is on the chandelier.
Usually lamps and chandeliers are divided into several categories (according to the size of the basement):
- For decorative lighting, a 2D base is used. It is also applicable as a sealed one - in shower rooms. But in such rooms you can often find the base G23.
- The same type of G23 is used in wall lights, and not just in bathrooms.
- In living conditions, the most common bases are 2G7, G24Q1, G24Q2, G24Q3. They are found in industrial conditions.
- The maximum energy saving is provided by spotlights. Their base is usually G53.
- The most popular and popular base is the E27. It is intended for the usual cartridge, which is used everywhere.
- Light bulbs with an E14 base are screwed into a smaller cartridge; it is used less frequently.
- The large base of the E40 is less common, but sometimes you just need lamps with it.
On packaging with a lamp is marked. Before buying it is important to find out what the letters in the label mean. It consists of four letters and numbers (using them you can determine the power). The first letter indicates the type of product: for example, L - lamp. The second indicates the color of light:
- L - luminescent;
- D - daylight;
- UV - ultraviolet.
There are several types of white light. The most common cold white, white, warm white, natural white. In the marking they will be marked with the letters HB, B, TB and E.
There are red, blue, green options.In such cases, the marking is also on the first letter of the color.
The third letter is the color quality, and the fourth is a design feature:
- Р - reflex;
- At - the tube or a flask has the U-shaped form;
- K - ring or round;
- A - amalgamic (now rarely found);
- B - there is the possibility of a quick start.
Safety level, disposal
These lamps can be used at temperatures from -15 to +40 degrees. Intact light bulbs are completely safe for humans. But at the same time, the class of waste to which they belong is toxic. This is due to the fact that the flask contains mercury vapor, dangerous to living beings.
To discard a used lamp, you need to pass it to a special reception point. So you can protect the environment from exposure to harmful compounds.
In no case should the lamp be broken. If this happened by accident, then the fragments should be collected as carefully as possible, wearing a mask and gloves before. For thorough collection, it is best to use a vacuum cleaner.
When the fragments are removed, you need to vacuum the room and reduce the air temperature in it, if possible.
These lamps last three to five times longer than ordinary incandescent bulbs. Each type of lamp, this indicator is individual and starts from three thousand hours. Most often they work from ten thousand hours. The term is influenced by ambient temperature, product quality, frequency of switching on and off.
Each inclusion reduces the service life by about two hours and can be up to 17% of the period indicated on the package, but this fits into the normal range.
It so happens that a very high-quality device with proper care lasts up to twenty thousand hours. However, it happens that the devices fail after more than two thousand hours of work. To extend the service life, do not turn the device on and off more than five times a day. But you do not need to leave it on for a long time.
Device and principle of operation
An ordinary fluorescent lamp consists of:
- glass cylindrical flask;
- glass feet;
- contact pins;
- stengel (the so-called hole through which air is pumped out of the flask);
- inert gas;
- mercury drops;
The product will have either a flask or a tube, depending on the model. The number of bases - one or two, also depending on the model.The electrodes are located inside, and the inside of the lamp is coated with phosphor.
When electricity is supplied, a discharge occurs between the electrodes, a current passes through the gas, and ultraviolet radiation appears.
This is where the phosphor property comes in handy. It allows you to translate this radiation into light visible to the human eye.
There are many types of fluorescent lamps.
Classifications are different - for example, by what color the light of the lamp. They come in cool white, warm light. Fluorescent lamps are popular.
For special premises, explosion-proof, waterproof, dust and moisture-proof lamps are chosen.
Thanks to modern technology, devices have appeared on the market. with motion sensor. It is very convenient. Such options are often preferred by those who regularly forget to turn off the light when leaving the room. But most often such devices are installed in the entrances in order to save all-house electricity. They are included only when someone enters the room.
Another modern device - dimmer options. Dimmers are used for a very long time. They were designed for use with incandescent bulbs.A new stage in the development they got exactly in modern times. Dimmer - a special device with which the brightness is regulated.
When dimmers first appeared, they were practically the only way to save electricity. Now with such a task to cope energy-saving lamps. Dimmers are now primarily aimed at making accents in the light design of the room. There is an opportunity to adjust the light for different needs.
It is important to note that not every light bulb is adapted to work in conjunction with a dimmer. Such a possibility should be indicated on the packaging.
Sometimes you can find an outdated model with ballast. It allows you to reduce the current to the required level so that the design does not fail.
For this purpose, electromagnetic triggering elements or electronic analogues are used - in more modern models.
The second option is preferable, since such lamps almost cease to flicker. In addition, the noise level that the device emits is significantly reduced. Such a rumble is familiar to many who have at least once been, for example, in old polyclinics.
Fluorescent lamps vary in shape.
Linear lamps can be U-shaped or ring-shaped. According to GOST-6825-64, such devices should have a diameter of 38 mm. Thanks to this very parameter of the bulb, it is possible to ignite such a lamp even at low temperatures.
Separately, it must be said about compact fluorescent lamps. These lamps have a curved bulb shape, which allows them to be placed in smaller lamps. So you can achieve a complete replacement of incandescent fluorescent lamps.
Since these lamps are often used as decorative, you can find black, yellow, red, blue versions. Color lighting will refresh the look of the room, giving it mysteriousness, romance. It helps to tune in a certain way. With the ability to choose interesting color solutions such bulbs are very popular.
However, the most popular colors are still more natural.
In electrical stores most often you can find such options:
- Cold bluish. Their second name, which is more known and recognizable - "fluorescent lamps".Such options are good for office space or home offices. In addition, this color is used in desk lamps. It allows you to tune in to the working mode, and with it you can more accurately consider the shades.
- Warm. Their peculiarity is that they provide a calm yellow light, which is very pleasing to the eye. Such devices are well suited for living rooms, as such light is ideal for relaxation. In this light, the room seems to be more comfortable and relaxing.
- White lamps - This is an intermediate option between the other two. They are popular among those who prefer something in between. This color of lamps is divided into two types: neutral white and cold white.
It is the fluorescent lamps used for the light design of the room - because of the wide variety of colors. Using such lighting devices, you can realize very interesting decorative solutions. Designers can use the new electrical products to create an excellent interior in which it will be pleasant to live and be.
Fluorescent lamps are used for both laconic modern rooms and for more sophisticated ones, such as country and baroque.
Such lighting devices come in different forms, as they are used in different conditions.There are the following options:
- thin single-pin;
- middle - with two pins;
- with double female connector;
- round ring.
Long tubular versions are often found in various institutions, at home such lamps are rarely used.
Even less often square ones are found, although lamps of any form find their sphere of application and their customers.
The size of the fluorescent lamp depends on a variety of indicators. First of all - from belonging to one or another type. The flask T5 has a diameter of 16 mm, and T6 - 26 mm. In everyday life, mainly compact, miniature, short lamps are used, while longer versions are used in industry and public institutions.
Compact lamps can be sized from 27 × 13 × 135 to 27 × 13 × 235. Miniature lamps must have indicators that correspond to GOST 15150-69. Short lamps can have an E27 base, suitable for most lamps used when lighting a home.
Some options are used in car headlights.
Types of lamps
Lamps can be divided into two large groups: ceiling and furniture.
- Furniture devices are most often wireless. They are powered by batteries or rechargeable batteries, so they do not need to carry electrical wires, ugly sticking out of, for example, a wardrobe.
- Ceiling devices are built in suspended or suspended ceilings. The best way to install such devices is hanging on the main lighting boxes.
Lamps can be divided into single-lamp, two-lamp, three-, four-lamp. This characteristic is determined by the number of lamps that can be placed in the lamp.
Fluorescent lamps are also used for street lighting.
To find out in what types of street lamps fluorescent lamps are used, it is enough to go to any illuminated street and look at the lamps installed on lanterns, searchlights, near entrances.
Lamps are ceiling and wall. The most commonly used are the first. They are designed to be placed inside the apartments.
In sanatoriums, hospitals and hospitals often use wall lights, which are located above the bed. They have a soft individual glow.Such a device allows you to read comfortably and safely: your eyes will not get tired.
Ceiling devices are different. They are embedded and overhead, raster, rack, point.
Scope of lighting
Fluorescent lamps for a long time were of interest only in terms of operation in special institutions (schools, stadiums, hospitals). For all its existence, this type of lighting, which appeared almost simultaneously with the incandescent lamp, did not attract the attention of the general public for a long time.
The advantage of these lamps, as the minimum power consumption, which now forces the governments of many countries to demand to replace incandescent lamps with devices of this type, was not properly appreciated. The uneven growth of the popularity of such devices is due to the technical difficulties that accompany the installation of these devices.
However, in general, willing to buy such lamps has become much more. The scope of application of such devices began to gradually expand: they resorted to the use of such lamps in swimming pools and even at the entrances of apartment buildings.Now this type of bulbs replaces all others, even in countries where the replacement of devices of one type with another is not mandatory.
Now the installation of these lamps does not require special technical tools and skills. It is possible to replace the fluorescent incandescent lamp without significant efforts, since the production of such light bulbs with an E27 base has long been established.
The scope of use of fluorescent lamps is very wide: there is still no equivalent in those places where the application was found initially. There is still no such economical equipment as fluorescent lamps - despite the urgency of the problem with energy saving. These devices are especially used where large amounts of artificial light are required.
It is worthwhile to dwell on the places where these lights are used, such as apartments and a photo studio.
As for residential premises, the replacement of incandescent fluorescent lamps is associated with the development of technology. These lamps can now be installed anywhere. Of course, the choice of such lamps for the home is also due to decorative solutions.
You can truly appreciate the advantages of these light devices when taking photographs: a photographic studio does not have such opportunities as large enterprises, so the need for a large amount of artificial light here needs to be correlated with the efficiency of light devices.
Modern studio photography is almost impossible without the use of fluorescent lamps. They are irreplaceable in this area: photographers simply have no choice in this matter - in terms of a combination of price, energy consumption, and occupied space, such equipment has no analogues.
In addition, photographers do not face the question of combining light devices with the interior; it is simply pointless to consider other lighting options when taking photographs.
Today, a large number of fluorescent lamps are presented on the Russian electrical goods market. Manufacturers of this equipment can be divided into several groups. It is worth paying attention to domestic manufacturers of energy-saving lighting devices. Russian-made lamps in electrical stores are very numerous, but the share of domestic producers in the segment of energy-saving light bulbs is insignificant.
This is due to the fact that the issue of saving electricity in Russia was not as acute as abroad.
Now Russians are forced to reap the fruits of such an irresponsible attitude to resources and buy imported energy-saving equipment. However, domestic manufacturers were ready to increase interest in such devices, so today it is already possible to identify major players in this market, offering exclusively high-quality products:
- Gauss. Among the advantages of these lamps, you can highlight the unusual appearance, high quality, availability. They can be purchased both in retail stores and in most specialized outlets - anywhere in our country.
- "Optogan". Products with this name are focused on the reality of Russian reality. Products "Optogana" differ in low price. In addition, OptoGan is the basis of all domestic products in this segment, as it is the only full-cycle manufacturer in Russia.
- ASD - It is the largest importer of fluorescent lamps in Russia.
- "Svetlana-Optoelectronics". This manufacturer has established itself in the domestic market for more than 20 years of successful experience. Among the advantages can be identified a constant expansion of the range.
An extensive segment of the domestic market is occupied by unknown manufacturers. This is a product supposedly made in China. The names on the label, as a rule, are not familiar to the buyer, and such products are present on the market for a short time.
Such products have a short lifetime and can damage property and health. Experts recommend not to purchase products of unspecified production, wanting to save. Such an attempt to save can end badly.
If we talk about Chinese products of good quality, then there are several brands:
- Selecta. Products of this company is known primarily for its high-quality ceiling lights.
- Camelion The advantage of these products can be called a democratic price.
- Estare. Products of this brand meet the latest requirements.
All Japanese and European manufacturers of fluorescent lamps can be attributed to one group. In these countries, the issue of energy saving has been acute for quite some time.
Buying products of such brands as Philips, Osram and the like, there is no doubt about the quality of the purchased goods.
How to choose?
When buying a new fluorescent light bulb, it is important to remember a few important rules. Without their observance, the work of the product will not satisfy you. So:
- Lamps to be installed in the house must have electronic ballasts. It is better to choose electronic ones, since they do not create noise and practically do not flicker.
- At the same time with the lamp it is better to purchase a set of spare lamps for it. After a long time after making a purchase, you can forget the characteristics of your lamp, and a pre-purchased light bulb will solve the problem.
- If the light bulb to be purchased is used in a room with a large number of people, then the color rendering index should be from 80 and up.
- For decorative lighting (for example, in the kitchen) you can buy lamps, the glass of which will be opaque. This will allow to get rid of the light highlights, which appear on glossy surfaces and very blind eyes.
- It should know in advance whether it is possible to use lamps with brightness controls. They are called dimmers. Usually on the package with the lamp indicates the possibility of sharing.
- It is important to ensure that the luminaire matches the suspended ceiling. The sizes in the shops are different, so it will be easy to choose the right option.
Ideas in the interior
You can place such bulbs in all rooms. The differences will be only in the color that the lamp emits, in power, shape.
For the hallway will be good those lamps that emit a soft, but not the most bright light. Good will look extra light bulbs near the mirror. Thus, leaving the house, the owner will be able to examine his outfit in detail and eliminate the flaws, if any. To do this in a well-lit room is much easier.
About the same light bulb can be placed in the bathroom, near the mirror, but it is important to remember that in this case it should be well protected from water. On the ceiling, designers recommend placing a few compact lamps, which must also be waterproof. It is worth taking a warm light - up to 3300 K.
In the living room, the hall is recommended to hang several lighting fixtures to regulate the degree of illumination of the room - depending on the needs.So you can make the room fully lit or provide light only in part of the room.
In the kitchen, multifaceted lighting will also be relevant. Designers, as a rule, distinguish two main light zones: general lighting and local lighting over the dining table. The warmth of the light should be selected, focusing on the overall design of the room. Not every interior is suitable warm light bulbs, even if you prefer a warm light.
Creating a unique atmosphere in the room is not so difficult. Light design will refresh the room, modern devices allow you to adjust the light for a variety of needs.
Progress has already stepped forward a long time ago, so now is a great time to take advantage of its achievements.
You will learn more about fluorescent lamps in the following video.