A couple of years ago only a few units took the risk of using LED lamps. Little was known about their characteristics, and their value was infinitely high. But with the development of technology, the functionality of such lamps became more extensive, the price tag fell, which led to the fact that today LED lamps are the most bought type of LED models.
What characteristics are especially important?
The power of LED lamps is expressed in watts in the same way as incandescent and fluorescent lamps.However, even energy-saving or fluorescent models are inferior to LED in terms of energy saving and luminous flux. To make it easier to understand the ratio of the power of incandescent and LED, and further facilitate the selection of the number and power of the purchased lamps, here is a comparison table with incandescent lamps.
Energy consumption is reduced by an average of 10 times with the LED lighting of the room, while the brightness of the luminous flux remains and remains unchanged, moreover, LED lighting has a much longer service life, which will save not only on electricity but also on the replacement of lamps.
Another advantage is also in favor of LED lighting: they are manufactured using the most advanced technologies, the output is a product that does not contain any toxic gases in itself, mercury and dangerous for human health of heavy metals. Depending on the type of LEDs used in production, such lamps are assigned 4 or 5 hazard class, which nevertheless requires special methods of disposal.
- The light emitted from a LED luminaire can have completely different colors. If you need, for example, a red light, then no other light bulb can cope with this requirement better than LEDs. In addition, a two-color backlight is possible, as well as a three-color one, and possibly an even greater number of color combinations.
- In addition, there are LEDs that change color. This option is a real boon for young people who like to hold festive discos at home. Thus, in normal times, LEDs are a standard fluorescent lamp, and during a holiday they are colored lights that can bring a special color to the room.
- Ordinary white and yellow light also have their own color, since they emit a warm and cold color degree. The warm shade is as close as possible to that produced by a conventional standard incandescent lamp, while the cold one provides more light to the space and works to expand the space due to the large percentage of whiteness emitted by a lamp of such color temperature.
- The choice of base is determined by the type of luminaire in which the lamp will be used. They distinguish a standard E-type base of various sizes, all of the incandescent lamps have such a base, which means most of the lamps are equipped with exactly this type of cartridge to which the standard E-base fits. There are the following dimensions: E 14 is the smallest basement in diameter, its base is 14 mm, the base is 27 mm or standard, respectively, is marked as E27. The largest base with a base equal to 40 mm is used in industry, for installation in street lamps or for lighting large rooms. This type of E40 base is marked.
- To replace the halogen lamps come LEDs on the base G and GU. They can also be of several sizes depending on where they will be placed. The most commonly used are G4, with a distance between contacts of 4 mm, GU 5.3, with a distance of 5.3mm and GU10, with a distance of 10 mm, respectively.
- In addition, type G and GU bases are used in tubular lamps., it is most often used a special swivel base. Most often the size of such a base G13. For the installation of the lamp in the furniture, for example, in the cabinet above the sink in the bathroom, use the base GX53.In this base the distance between the contacts is 53 mm.
Angle of dispersion
- Depending on the number and angle of the LEDs inside the bulb, it is possible to achieve a completely different angle of light scattering. One LED acts strictly by a straight beam, the refraction of which does not occur, therefore, due to the different inclination of the location, the manufacturer presents different product lines with a different angle of refraction from 30 to 360 degrees.
- The choice of the angle of illumination will depend primarily on the location of the point of illumination and the size of the room that is planned to be illuminated using lamps. So, if you need to choose a scattering angle for a fairly spacious room, it is better to concentrate on options with a scattering angle of more than 90 degrees. To illuminate a small area, it is better to pay attention to the less wide angle of dispersion of the light beam.
The scattering angle, equal to 360, is best suited for installation in decorative lamps, in which there are various figured cuts, this will create an interesting effect on the wall when using the lamp.
Color rendering index
The color rendering index is the distortion of the visual perception of color rendering when the object is illuminated with a lamp.
The color perception may differ when illuminated with lamps of different color temperatures, as well as vary depending on the color rendering index. The higher the index, the better the perception of colors and shades.
- The color rendering parameter is responsible for the quality of light and lies in the range from 0 to 100 Ra. Ra is a measure of the color rendition index. Depending on the index, the most suitable options for premises for various purposes are selected. For example, for rooms where maximum color rendering is needed, where every detail is important, a lamp with an index of 90-100 Ra is used. This type of space includes an art salon, a fabric and accessories shop, and a laboratory.
- In the living room for a comfortable life enough index 70 -90 Ra. Anything below 70 is most commonly used in warehouses, bars, and other darkened rooms. In order to properly select the LEDs of the required index, you need to pay attention to the markings that the manufacturer leaves on the box.The best color rendition from 90 Ra is provided by lamps with marking 1A, from 80 to 90 - 1B. Average indices show models labeled 2A and 2B, below average 3 and 4.
Principle of operation
The light source in the LED lamp is a light emitting diode, the number of diodes will depend on the brightness, and on the angle of inclination - the angle of dispersion.
The work is based on the phenomenon of light emission, which occurs at the point of contact of dissimilar substances, while an electric current passes through them. In this case, the materials used by themselves are not conductors of electric current, which creates the greatest interest in this phenomenon. They can skip the current only in one direction and then, subject to their connection. To do this, in one of the materials should be dominated by the content of ions, and in the other - electrons. The process of passing current in these materials, among other things, is accompanied by a significant release of thermal energy, and in some cases also by luminescence. It is the semiconductors capable of emitting a glow when current is passed through, and are the LEDs underlying the LED lamp.
Advantages and disadvantages
In comparison with conventional incandescent bulbs, LEDs have a number of tangible advantages, among them are the following:
- Electricity consumption is 8-10 times less than the traditional model.
- Voltage drops, So often occurring in average apartments are not a problem for LEDs. They retain the intensity of the glow, and since they are not susceptible to such drops, they do not burn during electricity surges.
- Heating temperature as well as special radiators that regulate heat, do not allow the lamp to heat up so as to spoil the cartridge or damage the floor lamp. In addition, the included light when using this type of lamp does not change the temperature of the room that illuminates.
- Another significant advantage is the durability of these lighting elements. So, the manufacturer promises an average of 25-50 thousand hours of uninterrupted work, translating it into years, you can count on about 10-15 years of uninterrupted work.
Like any other object, this element of lighting has its drawbacks:
- High enough cost However, with the available advantages, you can close your eyes to this drawback, because the full payback will occur fairly quickly.
- The most important disadvantage today is the huge number of poor-quality counterfeit goods on the market. Such models can cause overloads in electrical networks and fire. Moreover, low-quality models are simply dangerous to health. The reason for this is the heterogeneous spectrum of LEDs, as well as flicker, which has a detrimental effect on human vision.
- Separately, we can note the fact that LEDs cannot be used in rooms with elevated temperatures, in this case, their service life is significantly reduced.
There are several classifications of LED lamps, the separation occurs on the most important basis. The following classification groups are distinguished:
- To destination.
- By luminous flux and type of construction.
- By type of LED used.
- By type of cap.
So, depending on the place where this light element is used, the following types are distinguished:
- For home and office. Most often, these options are used as an alternative to traditional lighting, whether it be incandescent or fluorescent lamps. Used to save energy.There are also color models for home use, they are designed to perform decorative functions. Some models come with a remote control, with which you can change the color.
- Street. This type is used to illuminate roads, buildings. A distinctive feature of this type is the presence of special additional protection from dust and moisture.
- Spotlights. One of the newest types of LEDs. This also includes a ring lamp. It is most convenient for photo and video shooting.
- Car LEDs. This type is used in cars as interior lighting, headlights and other functional elements.
By luminous flux and design:
- General-purpose lamps, switch. This type is structurally close to the usual classic form of incandescent bulbs. The light in the lamps of this type is rather diffuse and of high quality for use in office and residential premises.
- Directional light. This type is used in spotlights, spotlights, used to highlight individual elements.
- Linear. Or two-cap LED tube-shaped lamps.This type has received the maximum distribution in office premises and various laboratories.
Classification by type of LED used:
- Indicator LEDs. One of the first developments in the assortment of lamps with LEDs. Sales of this type are declining every day, because they are models with a shimmer, which is the most dangerous to human health.
- SMD diode. One of the highest quality and easiest options. Scope of application is as wide as possible.
- Lamps on high-power diodes. Their use is rather limited due to the high heating of the case.
- Chip or SOW diode. Developing type, providing the highest quality lighting. The heating of the structure is quite slow, and the shape of the final product can be as diverse as possible. Explosion-proof models, which are now actively advertised by the manufacturer, are based on an IDS diode.
- Filament diodes or filaments. This type provides even illumination with a scattering angle of 360 degrees.
By type of base:
All existing bases are divided into 2 main groups: low-voltage and high-voltage.
Among the low-voltage ones, type G caps are mainly present. This is a pin connection with a socket. This type of socket can not be directly connected to the outlet and requires a special adapter. The high-voltage ones include standard E-type base or “Edison” base. A standard threaded base suitable for almost any luminaire.
Separately, it is worth noting a special group - rechargeable lamp. In this case, the LEDs are charged from the network and operate in standalone mode, as a backup power source.
Sizes and shapes
Today, there is a huge variety of different forms of LED lamps, for the convenience of the consumer, modern models have special markers on the package that indicate the shape. The designation is carried out using the Latin letters corresponding to the first letter of the word denoting the form. In addition, along with the letter designation there is also a number - this is the size.
Most popular forms:
- Form A or pear form. The closest possible version to the standard form of incandescent lamp. The maximum popular sizes of this form are 60 and 65.
- Form B. Small oval lamps, the size of such models ranges from 8 to 10.
- Form C or candle shape. Slightly elongated shape, reminiscent of a candle flame.
- Form SA or a candle in the wind. Long models are reminiscent of a candle flame shaking in the wind. One of the most beautiful decorative forms.
- Form G. Round or lamp in the form of a ball. It can be both mini-balls, and rather large volumetric models. More common are sizes from 45 to 95.
- Form R and BR. Reflectors that differ in their size. The most suitable form for spot lighting objects.
- Form MR and PAR - reflectors. Can, if necessary, replace the form R without losing properties. However, these forms have flat surfaces of reflection, and this differs from R.
- Form T - tubular lamp models. Due to the specific location of the LEDs, this type is called corn.
- Separately worth mentioning quite popular today square lamps. Here the LEDs are attached around the perimeter of the square frame.
Types of spotlights and fixtures
LED spotlights differ in the type of installation. So, allocate stationary and portable models.Fixed spotlights are fixed in a specific place with strong metal holders. Most often, this type of floodlights is used to illuminate streets and buildings.
Portable spotlights are mounted on a sturdy temporary tripod type structure. For convenience of carrying and fastening, the projector of this type is equipped with a special handle. The portable model is used to illuminate temporary exposures during construction work, and is also actively used by photographers at photo shoots.
Floodlights can be used in the garden area, while to save energy, you can choose models with motion sensors.
All lamps on LEDs can be divided into 2 large groups: ceiling and furniture, each of these groups also has its own classification. So, ceiling spotlights can be divided into several subgroups on fastening:
- Embedded models. Such lamps are mounted in hinged ceiling structures, they can be arranged in the form of various patterns, geometric figures - everything will depend only on the owner’s imagination and the style decision of the room.
- Ceiling linear lamps. Such options are used for uniform illumination of fairly long rooms.
- Pendant lights. They are used to illuminate rooms with high ceilings, become the highlight of the minimalist style or high-tech, among other things, this type of fixtures can be mounted on a clothespin to the ceiling beam. The so-called spots also belong to pendant lamps, besides the fact that they are classic pendant models, they also have a turning function that allows you to adjust the scattering angle and the point of illumination.
- By the ceiling spotlight can also be attributed to the lamp-tablets. Tablets are flat circular lamps, the fixture of which is also built into the ceiling.
Furniture lamps are also divided into subgroups according to the type of their installation, they can be:
In addition, as a backup light source are often used portable models that work from alternative power sources. For example, the wireless model on batteries is the most demanded among other models of this type.
By appointment, all LED light sources are divided into options:
- For the apartment. In this case, they can be used both in standard ceiling or wall lamps, and in furniture. So, the ceiling can be installed in the design of stretch ceilings in the room for any purpose, including the bathroom, however, here you should pay attention to models with special moisture protection. In various furniture, room lighting fixtures with diodes - one of the most common phenomena. Kitchen hoods are also usually equipped with this type of lighting.
- For industrial premises. Such lamps usually have a lower color rendering index and an anti-vandal structure, therefore they are used in hospitals, schools, offices and in industrial premises.
- For the street. Most often used for street lighting, so they have maximum protection against dust and moisture. In addition, these LEDs have an increased service life. Some types of outdoor luminaires, such as portable spotlights, are used successfully by photographers to take pictures.
Rating LED lamps today is not easy to make, because it is too difficult to divide them into good and bad.There are a lot of shades, and if one is good in one particular characteristic, it will not necessarily be as good in the other.
However, it can be said that the highest quality models that meet practically all the demands of a modern user are supplied by European manufacturers. Their only drawback is the relatively high cost. One of the leaders of the European market is Osram, a little lower in cost, but with acceptable quality. Wolta.
Among the Russian manufacturers, the company SvetaLed stands out. This company is engaged in a full production cycle. In addition, there are several companies in Russia that are developing blueprints for future lamps, after which they are sent to China, and the structure is already being assembled there at the factory. These companies can be quite popular today. Navigator, Feron, Gauss. These goods have a cost much lower than others, however, and the quality does not always meet all the requirements and here, as they say, as lucky. Therefore, to focus only on the ratings and popularity of models in this case is impossible, you just need to try and find the most suitable option.
How to choose LED for home?
After weighing all the pros and cons of relatively LED, the decision was made in favor of LEDs, how to choose them?
First of all, it is necessary to determine the required capacity. It should be remembered that the power of LEDs is 8-10 times lower than that of an incandescent lamp, while the light beam will be identical in brightness. Therefore, for ceiling lighting, it is advisable to use models with a capacity of 8-10 W, for sconces and wall lights an ideal power of 6 watts.
Next, you need to focus on the selection of the desired color temperature and the importance of maximum color reproduction. Warm white light is most suitable for home. This shade is able to create a cozy atmosphere, so it is perfect for a bedroom, living room or kitchen. It is better to use a cool white color to illuminate cabinets; it will stimulate brain activity, add vigor and tune into a working mood. The color rendition index is recommended to choose at least 80.
All lamps have different form of ammunition, therefore, choosing a suitable model, you should pay attention to the type of base. The most common type, which is suitable for most lamps, is a helical base. It is indicated in the markings, as the base E. In addition to the type of base, it is necessary to choose the right size. It is indicated by a number equal to the measurement of the diameter of the base in millimeters. The standard size is E27, however, today more and more manufacturers use E14, for more interesting design solutions in their lamps.
Spotlights usually have a slightly different cartridge device and therefore it is necessary to choose models with a base like GU for them. Their size is determined by the distance between the contacts of the base. In order not to be mistaken with the choice of base, it is recommended to remove the existing lighting element and go to the store with it, so that the selection is as convenient and correct as possible.
Checking the lamp before buying is also necessary in order not to mistakenly buy a narrowly directed light source, if, of course, this was not the original purpose of the purchase.
- LED lamps are the most secure sources of illumination. They do not contain mercury, heavy metals, poisonous gases.In addition, LEDs provide low power consumption, have a relatively high service life and have no special requirements for recycling.
- LEDs are recycled according to the household waste disposal scheme. The plastic case will be recycled as recyclable materials. The basement will undergo grinding and then its path will continue in the production of building materials and products with glass content. In addition, when disposing LEDs do not require special transportation, as they do not emit toxic substances. Disposal protection is also not required.
Based on all of the above, it is safe to say that the use of LED allows not only to save the budget for saving energy, but also to make its own contribution to the preservation of the environment.
You will learn more about LED lamps in the following video.