Features and types of LED curtains
LED garlands last decade firmly entered the life of modern cities. Especially often they can be observed on holidays. They create a unique and lively atmosphere, in which there are optimism and joyful mood. At the mention of the word "garland" immediately recall the New Year and the holiday tree. Technology does not stand still, and garlands are now found almost everywhere.
Device and principle of operation
In English, the abbreviation LED is translated as a light source in the form of an LED lamp. The design is fundamentally different from incandescent or fluorescent lamps.LEDs are low cost and long life.
The LED operates on semiconductor crystals that transmit electricity in one direction. The crystal is based on a special base that does not let in heat. The casing reliably isolates the light source from extraneous mechanical effects. The gap between the lens and the crystal is filled with silicone. Excess heat (if there is a little) is given away by an aluminum plate. The device has a transition consisting of holes, this is due to the basis of the functioning of various elements.
A semiconductor device has a large number of electrons, another conductor has a large number of holes. Due to the principle of doping, a material in which there are many holes gets particles that carry a negative charge.
If an electric current with different charges is applied at the intersection point of the semiconductors, an offset is formed. Then an electric current will flow through the adapter of the two materials. When colliding holes and electrons, an excess amount of energy is born - these are quanta of light, which are called photons.
Diodes consist of various semiconductors, thanks to this there is a different color of the light flux, semiconductor materials are usually:
- gallium, its phosphide;
- ternary compounds: GaAsP (gallium + arsenic + phosphorus), AlGaAs (aluminum + arsenic + phosphorus).
Diode tapes are able to reproduce a variety of colors of light fluxes. If there is a monocrystalline device, then really create a variety of colors. With the help of a special RGB principle, an LED can generate an infinite number of shades, including white light. LED indicators consume 2–4 volts (50 mA current). To make devices for street lighting, products with an increased voltage level of 1 A are required. When connected in series, the total voltage level can reach 12 or 24 volts.
LEDs are used not only for street and indoor lighting of houses or apartments. LED garlands last twenty years are used to decorate many objects. For example, the purchase of a light "rain" (Play Light) can be an excellent solution.
This decoration can also be suitable for exterior decoration:
- residential buildings;
- catering establishments.
The garland, which is called “rain”, is made up of various luminous threads, along which light sources are located along the entire length. Each "branch" is attached to the main bus with a special fastening-clutch. LEDs are located at a certain distance from each other. Their form may vary, most often they are found in the form of small spheres.
Such light constructions are called:
- garland rain;
- Garland Play Light;
- light curtain.
- many other items.
The quality of the product, the strength with which the elements are connected, affect its durability. Garlands are in an unfavorable environment, where there is a significant difference in humidity and significant subzero temperatures. All this, of course, affects the functioning of LED devices.
If the product is made of low-quality plastic, then it quickly loses its functional qualities, begins to crack and break. Bare wires appear, which can lead to short circuits and failure of the string. When buying it is recommended to check the output data on the package.On the label there is usually information about whether the garland can work in winter conditions.
Imprint and technical characteristics of garlands in the form of "rain" are of several types. First of all, differentiation occurs relative to the level of protection assigned to them, depending on where the product will be applied. And also the moisture and amount of dust are taken into account (according to GOST 14254-96). The designation is written in the form of symbols "IPyz", where "y" is the degree of protection against dust exposure, and "z" is the level of protection from moisture.
Light rain, in which there are miniature LEDs, is labeled IP20 (it should always be on the box) suitable for use in any room.
LEDs do not have adequate protection from moisture, therefore, in saunas or swimming pools such products are prohibited. If there is an IP44 marking, then such a garland is not recommended for use outdoors, as there is no protection against moisture and condensate. In such garlands there are always two dozen luminous threads, sometimes their number reaches twenty-five. Products that are used in environmental conditions are indicated by IP54.In them, the cable is thoroughly protected by several layers of insulation, and there are also special protective coatings that protect the light bulbs from moisture drops.
Such garlands can be found:
- on the walls of houses;
- on the roofs of buildings;
- on the visors of building structures.
There are even more reliable products labeled IP65. Cables and all joints have additional rubber insulation (designation R), rubber may be present in them (marked G). The LED elements here are completely isolated and therefore they are allowed to be used even under water. It is such light "rain" is used in most regions of Russia.
The aesthetic impact of the "rain" is quite tangible, but they are characterized by other positive qualities:
- significant energy savings;
- safety of use;
- low price;
- easy installation;
- increased ductility;
- low heating elements;
- little weight;
- luminescence stability;
- stable work in harsh environments;
- long service life.
Such garlands have the ability to work on certain algorithms. You can set different programs, in accordance with which flicker and play will occur with a certain frequency.
Varieties of light curtains
The device of lighting garlands "rain", in its essence, is simple: other wires are attached to the main wire. Power is supplied from the electrical network on the one hand, and from the other end of the network a control unit is attached.
In this type are made numerous varieties of "rain", of which the most popular:
- "New Year".
The sizes of lighting devices can be very different. Sometimes they "cover" the facades of houses, which stretch for tens and hundreds of meters. Garlands are connected in series in the amount of several pieces. Chains are being parallelized, so with the failure of one “branch” the rest of the system will continue to work.
“Flickering garland” is when light sources change the saturation of radiation over a certain period of time. It can last at a different frequency and with a different intensity factor, while emitting warm white light. In such devices, every fifth or sixth diode flashes with a certain frequency. Such garlands look very good inside various premises, as well as on the facades of buildings.Of these light devices often collect whole compositions that can look very impressive.
“Chameleon” is a colored garland in which different colors are changed, there can be several light modes. "Rain" is the most common type of garland, there are several types of them. For example, "Curtain". In this case, there is a sparkling multicolored glow. Threads are differentiated from 1.4 to 9.3 meters. The width of the source remains standard - 1.95 meters. It is very easy to count: if you should “treat” a plot of 20 square meters. meters, you will need at least 10 pieces.
Products that are mounted on the streets of cities are:
- "Icy Snowflakes";
- "Falling snow";
Often, garlands are used with a variety of metal lighting designs. According to the parameters, there is a certain differentiation of such products. There are simple diode bulbs that work without any light effects. The device of such garlands is simple, they usually do not have a fastening coupling. Such devices look good, but it is recommended to understand that the branches in such garlands can no longer be replaced.
Most often, such garlands are decorated with buildings and balconies. The length of the threads is from 0.22 meters to 1.2 meters. For example, "Icicles" are plastic luminous elements, arranged vertically, there are LEDs in them, but outwardly they really look like icicles. Belt Light is another popular look. It consists of a narrow strip, there is a five-core cable in it, on which insulated cartridges are mounted, to which different types of lamps are connected (the distance varies from 12 to 45 cm).
Colors usually come in:
Recommendations for selection
When choosing a garland "Light rain" should focus on the fact that the length of the filaments declared by the manufacturer is the length in their straightened position. In fact, in the vertical working condition the length of the thread will be noticeably shorter - on average by 12%. All knots in the garlands that work on the streets must be isolated and have the appropriate quality certificates. The degree of protection should not be below IP65. Such a product can withstand heavy rain and snow storm.
Also pay attention to the rubber curtains, which also meet all established standards.All the garlands can be connected into one, which makes it possible to create a single light unit that can cover a fairly large area. Power at the same time should be one.
"Light rain" can have both static and dynamic light, this is indicated on the packaging, as well as in the instructions. An important factor is the diameter of the wire, what kind of protection it has. If the wire is solid, then it is more durable and will better withstand external wind loads. It is important to choose the right power supply, it must necessarily have an extra power reserve. All this will avoid short circuits in case of unexpected power surges.
If the garland is several tens of meters in length, then it is likely that an additional power supply will be needed to evenly distribute the load. Care should be taken that the transformer is also reliably isolated from moisture.
How to hang a garland?
Luminous garlands always create an elevated, festive atmosphere, but care should be taken during installation and operation. Like any technical product, garlands are fraught with potential danger,whether it is installation of a garland on a window or on the facade of a high-rise building. Before attaching a garland, you should carefully inspect the object. It is necessary to understand: what elements of the building will have to work.
Most often this happens:
It is necessary to draw a scheme from which it will be clear with an approximation of 95% how long the garland will be. The power source must choose the closest, then it will be clear how many meters of the cord will be needed. In the work necessarily need a sliding ladder, which must be equipped with a special hook. The installation of the product itself begins with mounting hardware mounting hooks. It is necessary to take into account the distance between the bulbs when mounting the garlands. Garlands connect end to end and securely fasten on the roof or wall of the house.
How to make LED curtains with your own hands, see the following video.