How and from what to build a barn?
Land in the country is considered a good acquisition, as after its improvement there is a great opportunity to enjoy outdoor recreation. In order for the cottage to become the most comfortable place to stay, you need not only to build a residential house, but also to worry about the presence of such an obligatory construction as a barn. It will be possible to store all the household supplies and equipment in it, and if desired, the household unit will serve as a workshop, a spacious storeroom or a chicken coop.
What it is?
A shed is a necessary outbuilding that can have different layouts and uses. Most often, such structures are built for storage of garden tools, special equipment, vegetables grown in vegetable beds and sheaves drying.Fans of outdoor activities will equip barns in the form of spacious storerooms, where they conveniently place chairs, hammocks, tables and barbecues. In addition to the storage function, such hozbloki serve as an excellent place for breeding poultry and cattle. In order for rabbits, geese, ducks, turkeys and sheep to grow comfortably, construct large structures and perform interior decoration.
Recently, many gardeners are trying to make a barn multifunctional, complementing the utility room with a utility room, toilet and summer shower.
Particularly popular projects of buildings, including a covered veranda, bathroom, pantry and recreation room. In order to maximally equip a barn, small sheds are also attached to it for storing firewood and for arranging a home greenhouse.
Sheds can be in the form of monoblock structures made on the basis of welded frames or metal containers. There are also collapsible types of buildings that are easily installed and dismantled. There are small temporary and huge capital structures, the latter of which are installed on a solid foundation and placed on the garden plot so that they harmoniously fit into the general view of landscape design.
What materials are better to use?
Today the market is represented by a chic assortment of building materials with which you can quickly and affordably build a shed. Therefore, before you start installing an outbuilding, it is important to determine what functions it will perform and, in accordance with this, select a more suitable option for finishing it. Most often for the construction of the barn use foam blocks, bricks and wood, but if the block is collapsible, then it is assembled from plastic or metal. In order to make the right choice of material, it is worth considering its advantages and disadvantages.
- Tree. Most of the summer residents prefer to build wood sheds, since their installation is simple and does not require any special financial expenses. Wooden structures are usually built within a few days. The construction of such units is quite realistic to carry out independently, without resorting to the help of specialists. The disadvantage of wooden sheds is their fragility, as well as the instability to the processes of decay and insects. In addition, wood is a fire hazardous material, so it must be treated with special protective agents.
- Brick. Brick bridges are highly durable and have a solid appearance, thanks to which they easily fit into any landscape design of the site. Especially beautiful look such sheds next to brick houses. Despite the fact that this material is durable and reliable in operation, its installation is expensive and, due to its great gravity, requires laying the foundation.
- Foam blocks. The buildings made of this material are almost as good as brick masonry blocks. This is a modern material that is affordable and characterized by high durability. The only thing that for the construction of foam block sheds is necessary to additionally construct a quality base.
- Metal. As a rule, metal structures are used for prefabricated sheds. They have low cost, light weight. Installation of metal blocks is carried out quickly, for their installation it is necessary only to prepare well and level the site, while laying the foundation is not necessary. But metal sheds are corroded, so they need to be covered with a protective layer.Since metal badly retains heat, buildings have to be insulated: heat insulation is used for floors, roofs and walls.
- Plastic. Designs in this version appeared quite recently, but they have already managed to give a good account of themselves, and are in demand among summer residents. Plastic buildings have a light weight, compactness and aesthetic appearance. Their construction is not of great complexity; besides, plastic is resistant to moisture and is “not afraid” of insects. The only drawback of plastic blocks is their fragility, so it is recommended to purchase panels with reinforcement.
- Polycarbonate. It is usually used for the construction of greenhouses, but many owners of dacha plots choose polycarbonate and for arranging sheds. Well suited material for hozblok intended for raising animals or poultry, but if the shed will be used as a storeroom or workshop, then from the transparent walls it is desirable to refuse. Polycarbonate sheets are usually attached to a frame made of wood or profiles using self-tapping screws. The walls sheathed thus will reliably last not one ten years, and if necessary they can be dismantled easily.There are practically no drawbacks to polycarbonate.
- Slate. Often, upon completion of the construction of the house, slate remains, which is quite suitable for building sheds. Since the material is produced in large sizes, its installation is carried out quickly: sheets of slate are fixed on a wooden frame and insulated. Such sheds are a budget option for a dacha, but they do not look very stylish, so they are usually hidden in the backyard of the dacha and used exclusively as a place to store firewood, tools and other equipment.
- Opilkobeton. Saw from opilkobetona build on monolithic technology. First, a strong frame is created, after which it is sheathed with various materials, creating a formwork, as a rule, it can be a CIP panel or board. The formwork is poured with a special mixture prepared from sawdust and concrete. The result is a solid structure, the walls of which have excellent thermal insulation. Such a shed can be equipped as a pantry, workshop or chicken coop, but this will require considerable effort.
- Pallets. This material is considered to be a good alternative to wooden beam, which is used in the construction of frame structures.The pallets are cheap, and in order to expose them, it is enough to pour the foundation and bolt all the elements together. Additionally, such sheds sheathe OSB-panels. This is an economical option of a farm building that does not require money and time.
- Aerocrete. In many ways they have similarities with foam blocks, but they are manufactured using a different technology, thanks to which they are resistant to water, fire, weigh a little and are sold at an affordable price. The only drawback of the material is that it is characterized by high water absorption, because of this it is necessary to lay reliable waterproofing when building a barn.
- Wood concrete The material is produced in the form of blocks consisting of wood and concrete. Household designs of arbolita have high thermal insulation properties, durable, resistant to moisture, mold and rodents. But it is undesirable to build such buildings in areas with harsh climatic conditions, as the material is afraid of low temperatures. In addition, blocks are produced with inaccurate geometry, which complicates installation work.
Before starting to build a barn, it is necessary not only to draw up a draft scheme of the future economic block, but also to choose the most suitable place for it in the personal plot.You need to focus on the location of all construction objects, and based on this, install a barn in the backyard closer to the garden or between the bath and a residential house. Most often, such constructions are placed on land unsuitable for cultivation of garden crops.
The choice of the location of the barn depends largely on indicators such as:
- plot area and its zoning;
- material of which the hozblok is under construction.
In addition, an important point for determining the territory will be the method of decorating the building.
Despite the fact that the barn is designed primarily for storage, it does not prevent him from making the original structure, which will serve as an unusual decoration of landscape design. But even if the construction turns into the main design object, it is still not recommended to put it in the forefront at the entrance to the courtyard. The placement of the shed is planned so that it does not flood during the melting of the snow and during the rain. In addition, it is important to provide free access to the entrance to the building.
A huge role in choosing a place for a barn is played by its functional purpose. In the case when the unit will be used as a pantry, complete with a shower and toilet, the structure can be constructed from materials similar to a residential structure, and put next to it. If gardeners are going to breed pets and poultry, as well as store firewood, haystacks and feed reserves in the utility block, then the building should be far away from the house and not create discomfort for the neighbors.
An important step in the installation of business units is the development of the project. Therefore, before starting all work, you should carefully consider the layout of the barn and determine where the summer kitchen, shower, pantry, workshop and storage space for firewood or blocks for animals and birds will be located. To simplify the design task, you need to draw a simple diagram on the sheet, indicating all windows, doors and partitions in it. In the case when the construction is planned to equip several rooms, then for convenience they are recommended to provide separate doors. Thus, each room will have its own entrance, and you will not have to travel for a long time to move from the summer kitchen to the shower or toilet.
To date, projects of frame sheds are very popular, where a wood shed is additionally attached.
They, as a rule, are constructed with a single-sided roof, there are also options with a gable roof. Its scheme is much more complicated, but allows you to create an attic room with additional storage space. While working on the project, it is necessary to provide the correct slope of the roof so that it is located in the other direction from the doorways. If this is not done, then rainwater will flow at the entrance to the shed.
Once everything is complete with the layout, a drawing of the building is drawn in the form of contours, and the dimensions of the future building are put down. At the same time, it is worth paying special attention to the fact that the capital business units require registration of the project in the BTI. Due to well-designed schemes, the dimensions and location of the structure are determined, and the approximate construction time is calculated. Usually sheds are erected in standard sizes ranging from 3 × 3 to 5 × 5 m.
These indicators depend on what tasks the unit will perform and are calculated in a certain way:
- For the storage of garden tools such as pruners, shovels and rakes, a barn with a size of 1.5 × 1.5 m is ideal. Such projects are mainly chosen by summer residents, who are engaged in the site only earthworks. They additionally equip small buildings with shelves and a hook system.
- If, in addition to garden accessories, you need to hide such equipment as pumps, lawn mowers, and also place fertilizers, paint, etc., then storage rooms of at least 2 × 3 m will be needed.
- In the case when gardeners plan to exploit the barn as a rabbit or chicken coop, then, taking into account the number of animals, the area of the household block is calculated. In this case, it is best to construct structures with a small margin.
An important point in the design will be the appearance of the farm building.
As a rule, it is determined by the overall style of the infield. Creating the original shape of the roof, you can beautifully distinguish two types of buildings. For example, a gable roof, the slopes of which will descend from the middle of the skates, is ideal for a rustic style. A good option in the project is considered to be a barn and sloping sloping roof,it is characterized by the correct geometry and is well combined with the architecture of modern residential buildings, speaking of their continuation.
We must not forget in the design and the internal height of the utility block and the placement of the roof. There are buildings in which the slope of the roof is not directed backwards, but forward. The height of the premises must be calculated depending on the functional purpose of the shed. It should be convenient for moving inside the building, especially for structures that combine a warehouse, a shower and a toilet at the same time.
For capital buildings in the project should also provide for laying the foundation. If construction is planned from heavy material, then a solid foundation is mandatory. For lightweight constructions, you can only get by assembling the frame and cladding. Additionally, the layout should indicate the location of communication systems. Usually in the sheds spend sewage, water and wiring.
Subtleties of work
After the planning on the land plot has been completed and the apartment building has been built, you can proceed to the installation of the shed. However, some gardeners prefer to purchase a barn or prefabricated outbuildings, which are easy to install.If landscape design provides for the presence of an original and beautiful building, then it is best to build it yourself on an individual project. The most suitable option for this would be a frame construction of a slab or unedged board, such a shed will be inexpensive, will last reliably more than 10 years, and can be built in the shortest possible time, without the help of craftsmen. Construction work in this case will consist of several stages:
The chosen place near the private house is carefully leveled and covered with gravel. Then four poles should be dug into the ground to a depth of 60 cm. In order for them to serve for a long time, their bottom should be wrapped up with roofing iron and fix everything with a carpentry starter. This will help protect the supports from the rotting process. To ensure a good sloping roof, the columns of the rear walls should be placed 20 cm below the front.
Making the lower and upper trim
As a building material, bars with a cross section of 50 × 50 mm are usually used, they are fixed to the installed columns at a level not lower than 10 cm from the ground. It is important to control the leveling of the strapping in order to avoid its skewing; you need to use a level when installing.After installation of the lower trim, similar work is performed with the installation of the upper one. Further, the gap between the lower and upper planks is divided in half and an additional four beams are nailed.
Prepare the boards in advance, then fix them vertically to the upper, middle and lower bars.
Installation of the roof
For this, markings are first made, and three bars are nailed to the bars at the same distance from each other. They must be placed transversely, since they will serve as rafters. They are sheathed with boards, and any roofing material, most often roofing material is laid up. Sheets of roofing material should be put from the bottom edge, leaving a small overlap of 5 cm and moving up. In order to secure the finish, vertical boards are filled with it.
Installation of doors is done and flooring is laid. In addition, the interior arrangement of the shed is being carried out: shelves and lockers are arranged for storing household supplies and garden tools. And also near the hozblok you can plant small bushes and ornamental plants that will serve as an excellent decor for him.
In that case, if the villa owners want to build not only a multifunctional, but also a beautiful barn, then you will need to make the most of imagination and effort.
First of all, it is worth considering the layout of the building: the shape, size and materials for decoration.
Such a construction will require both temporary and financial costs, but it will pay off, as it will serve reliably for at least 20 years. For the implementation of construction, you can optionally use either the services of masters, or do everything yourself. In the case when the work will be done independently, it is important to comply with the construction technology, which consists of several stages:
- Foundation laying. Since the structure will not have heavy weight, you can make the foundation on piles, or make a columnar foundation. A playground is being prepared for this, it is cleared of debris and leveled. Then you need to dig asbestos pipes to a depth of at least 1.5 m and pour them with a concrete solution of medium consistency. Concrete is prepared from sand, rubble and cement, the constituent components are taken in a ratio of 3: 4: 2. The foundation is given time to harden, as a rule, it takes several days.
- The construction of the barn. Wooden boards, which are planned to be used for the construction of the shed, are pre-impregnated with special antiseptics. They will help protect the material from the process of decay and prolong its life. Then the frame of the structure is assembled, and the bottom trim is laid on the foundation. It is best to use parallel bars for strapping. Further, logs are prepared for which the floor will be comfortable, this can be done both immediately and after construction.
After that, vertical posts are fixed to the strapping, they are fixed to the upper part of the structure.
If an angled hozblok is planned, then the number of racks will be increased, they are additionally installed at the corners of the building, as well as in those places where window and door openings will be placed. Then you can proceed to the construction of the roof, while if the shed is installed with a canopy, it is enough to lay a lean-to roof. But it is worth noting that the gabled type of roofing will give the shed a more attractive look, so it is often chosen for the outbuildings located near the house.
At the end of the installation, the wall paneling is done.After that install windows and door. To decorate the barn, it can also be additionally decorated with clapboard. Inside the building it is necessary to finish the ceiling and equip it with the necessary shelves.
Farm buildings made of blocks are also very popular among summer residents. Compared to unedged board, such objects have many advantages, they are durable and reliable in use, and also resistant to moisture and temperature changes. In addition, the blocks are easy to install, which simplifies the construction process. The construction of such a barn includes several stages of work:
- Pouring the foundation. As a basis for block structures, a strip foundation is usually chosen, on which a layer of waterproofing is additionally laid.
- Masonry blocks. This building material is laid using a solution made from sand and cement. During fixation of blocks it is important to control the thickness of the seams, it should not exceed 5 mm. First, lay the corners of the future building, then, using a plumb line and level, level the surface of the walls vertically and horizontally.In addition, at the bottom and top of the building you need to perform a reinforcing belt.
- Roof mounting. The construction of the roof is carried out according to the same scheme as in the construction of frame structures.
- Installation of flooring, windows and doors.
- Finishing work. Inside the object you can either plaster the walls or sheathe sheets of drywall. In this case, the last option is considered the easiest and most affordable. Drywall allows you to get a beautiful and durable finish, and to apply the plaster correctly, it will take a lot of time and labor costs. If you plan to use the barn as a workshop, then you need to equip it inside with special shelves and cabinets.
There are also many other ways to build a barn, using building materials such as metal, plastic or polycarbonate, but the principle of their construction is similar to the above steps. If the material is light, then construction begins with the assembly of the skeleton and wall cladding, and in the event that the building block is constructed of stone or brick, they first lay a solid foundation and act in the usual way. The main thing is that at the end of the work the barn does not spoil the landscape design of the site.
Therefore, regardless of its purpose and material, which is used when covering the frame, it is recommended to do decoration.
For example, a beautiful flowerbed of ornamental plants and a path lined with natural stones will become a real decoration of even the simplest building.
How to repair old?
A shed is considered an important farm building on a plot of land that performs many functions. But over time, the structure under the influence of the external environment begins to lose its original appearance and performance characteristics. To prevent this, the hozblok should be repaired regularly. The restoration of the barn is not particularly difficult, so it is quite realistic to do it yourself, the main thing is to have the desire. Before you repair the hozblok, you should pay attention to the condition of the base, beams and roofing material of the building. In addition, you need to check the integrity of the flooring, walls and ceiling.
After the state of the economic object is determined, calculations and selection of the necessary material for the replacement of elements is made.
Estimated work is calculated, and tools are prepared. For the restoration of the foundation will require a brick and concrete mix, to restore the roof should be purchased roofing material, screws, nails and shackles. If the barn is wooden, then it must be sheathed on the outside with new planks, and we must insulate the walls inside.
Repair of the base is performed as follows: with the help of a jack, they raise the angle of the building using brick and cement mortar, construct a pedestal, after which the structure is lowered onto it. As for the roof, during its replacement it is necessary to provide for the installation of waterproofing of plastic film or roofing material, it will protect it in the future from leakage. In that case, if the waterproofing during construction was not laid, you will have to disassemble the roof completely. Next on the insulating layer impose metal or slate. For a gable roof it is obligatory to check the condition of the ridge, if necessary it is changed to a new one.
An important stage of repair will be the interior decoration of the barn.
First, the old flooring is dismantled, and the damaged boards are replaced with new ones. If the front door has lost its attractive appearance, it can also be changed. In the event that the original project did not provide for the presence of windows in the shed, during the repair they can be installed. This will allow you to work indoors without using electricity. In modern versions of buildings often organized lighting, consisting of several outlets and bright lamps.
It is also worth paying special attention to the repair of walls and load-bearing beams. If the bearing elements and floors are rotted, then it is not necessary to disassemble the entire structure; it is sufficient to install new ones next to the damaged fixtures. To restore the old walls, you should dismantle the broken and rotten boards, replacing them with another material. When installing new wooden elements, it is important to pretreat them with an antiseptic. It will protect the wood from insects and moisture.
To increase the service of wooden sheds will help their painting stain.
Inside the unit, it is also recommended to place new racks and shelves that would allow for a more rational distribution of the unit's space. In addition, it does not interfere with the manufacture of convenient devices for storing skis, bicycles and other equipment.It is recommended to install tool holders in the workshop above the working table. In order to free up storage rooms inside a dwelling house, during repairs under the shed you can build a compact cellar for storing vegetables and fruits.
Recently, most land owners prefer to build barns with their own hands, as this is economical, and allows you to individually create more suitable options for projects.
In order for the outbuilding to be properly erected, reliably served for a long time, it is recommended to take into account the advice of experts.
- The frame of the future building is best made from composite materials. Through a combination of bricks, logs and boards, the structure will gain strength. At the same time between the wood and brick laying is required laying waterproofing layer.
- During the construction of the board should be overlapped. This will reduce installation work.
- For the construction of strong blocks need to use silicate brick. It has excellent moisture resistance. In addition, you need to lay the foundation and perform reinforcement. This is especially true of buildings, the size of which is rather big.
- The professional material will become good material for the shed, it is best to buy sheets with a thickness of 0.45 mm. Such a structure will last more than 40 years, will not require repair and is simply installed.
- It is necessary to place the economic block in a convenient place, at a distance of 1 m from the neighboring site. In the case when it is planned to keep chickens and other animals in the shed, the distance will have to be increased to 4 m.
- For laying the flooring it is desirable to use high-quality and durable boards, they need not only to be treated with an antiseptic, but also covered with additional layers of varnish. You can not lay the floor until it froze the foundation.
- When exterior lining the walls of the shed, you must use simple, not galvanized nails, which over time can leave ugly stains on the finish.
- The dimensions of the power unit must meet its intended purpose. The optimal size for a country barn is the construction of 2 × 3 m with a ceiling height of 2.5 m.
- In order to be quickly found in the shed, it is important to properly place tools and things in it. A good solution would be to install convenient shelving.
- During the planning of the building, it is necessary to provide for a canopy.This will allow in hot weather to work in the fresh air in the shade.
To learn how to build a barn yourself, see the video below.