Projects pigsty: what are, how to build and arrange inside?
The main question that arises when one wants to raise pigs is the placement of animals. If the plot is small, it is most beneficial to keep them for fattening from spring to autumn, at this time they do not need capital buildings for maintenance. If you decide to breed pigs, please note that in the winter the pigsty must be warm. The size of any facility for pigs is directly dependent on the number of animals and their age, as well as on your goals for growing pigs.
Requirements for the building and its location
The building in which you will keep the pigs must be dry. To ensure this condition, select the elevated place on your site. The ideal ground for the construction of the pigsty is gravel or sand. If the soil is loamy, you can create a mound under the building. Consider the position of groundwater - from the surface to them must be at least 1 meter.
The place should be leveled or with a slight bias towards the south or southeast. A fence or trees are desirable for protection from wind gusts. Moisture from precipitation or melting snow should not linger on the site.
The distance from neighboring sites to your pigsty should be at least 200 m, and if there is a large industrial or agricultural enterprise nearby, then 1-1.5 km. Build a pigsty away from residential buildings (at least 20 m) and roads - 150-300m. Do not use for the construction of the former cemeteries of animals, as well as areas near enterprises engaged in the processing of wool or leather.
The pigsty is most likely to be oriented to the north-south, so that in winter the icy winds blow into the butt or corner of the building. This way you can significantly reduce energy and heat in the cold.The building of the pigsty must be warm and well ventilated. It is necessary to provide utility room for inventory, bedding material and animal feed. The location of such premises in the end zone would be ideal.
The roof over the room can have one or two ramps. If you do not take into account the attic, the height of the pigsty is about 210-220 cm. If the roof is single-sided, the rear wall can be raised to a height of 170-180 cm, and the front wall can be raised to the recommended height.
Rules and conditions of livestock
First, it is necessary to take into account the norms of area per 1 animal. This figure is different for breeding and farmed livestock for meat, as well as for uneven-aged gilts.
Age groups of animals
The number of pigs in the machine
Area per 1 head, square. m
When breeding for fattening
Uterus idle and pregnant up to 2 months.
Pregnant uterus in the third month
Pregnant uterus in the fourth month
Suckling sows with piglets
Piglets up to 5 months old
Breeding pigs 5-8 months
Breeding boars 5-8 months
Feeding piglets 5-6 months
Feeding piglets 6-10 months
As you can see, on average, breeding pigs requires about one and a half times more space.
The room should maintain an optimal microclimate, that is, comfortable temperature, humidity, air circulation rate, low pollution and dustiness indicators, as well as the content of harmful substances. These indicators are directly dependent on the climate, the insulation of the building, its size, the ventilation system, the number, weight, age of the pigs, the way they are kept, and the sanitation of the room. Changes in any indicator can dramatically affect the health of your wards. Productivity, reproduction, immunity of animals may deteriorate, and feed consumption will increase. The most pretentious to the conditions of detention are the pigs and representatives of highly productive breeds.
The ambient temperature has a very large influence on the metabolism of pigs. With a decrease in this indicator more than 1/10 of the energy from the feed goes to the self-heating of the animal. This leads to a decrease in productivity and an increase in the risk of diseases to which the young are particularly sensitive.When the temperature rises, loss of appetite is observed, the speed of food digestion decreases, which also leads to a decrease in productivity and reproduction function.
For different groups of animals, the optimum temperature is different: for queens - 16-20 degrees, for young piglets - about 30 degrees, but as they grow older, the temperature must be reduced (plus a week - minus 2 degrees), for pigs raised for fattening - 14 -20 ° C Humidity inside should be maintained at a level of 60-70%, with increasing temperature, it is acceptable to decrease to 50%. There are also certain requirements for lighting in the building for pigs, because for perfect development your wards need sunlight. Many people note a decrease in immunity in young animals and growth rates when replacing natural light with artificial. The digestibility of vitamin D, such an element as Ca, fertility deteriorates.
To avoid such a situation, lighting is made variable, and infrared and ultraviolet lamps are used. To heat the young stock, they are placed at a height of about 1 m from the floor, the lamp use mode is variable: approximately one and a half hours of work for half an hour or more off depending on the method of keeping.Lamps of the type PRK-2, PRK-G, ЭУВ-15, ЭУВ-30 and ЛЭР are used for ultraviolet illumination. Strictly dose the duration of such radiation, its excess is harmful to animals. On average, adult females and males receive more UV light than young piglets. The most effective is the combination of such lighting with regular physical activity of the pig.
Project and dimensions
How to design and build a pigsty at no cost? First, decide on the number of farmed pigs. Secondly, decide for what you will breed them - for fattening or for the tribe. For fattening pigs enough light summer pigsty. Make sketches of the future structure, and on their basis - drawings.
Naturally, for a large number of pigs a large capital building is required. When designing such pig houses (for 50-100 heads) animal pens are usually placed along the side walls, leaving between them a half meter passage.
At 2-4 pigs
For two pigs fit two-piece building, which is adjacent to the paddocks. For the boar, select a separate room with an area of approximately 5.5 square meters. mA larger stall is meant for the sow. It would be good to provide in advance a separate stall for piglets. If you plan to keep one male and 3-4 females, calculate the area of the pens using the table above.
Selection and calculation of material
The best choice for building a pigsty foundation is concrete. The calculation of the required quantity is performed as follows: the length, width and height of the planned foundation are multiplied together and the volume of concrete is obtained. For walls, you need to choose a heat insulating material - bricks, thick logs, gas silicate blocks, rubble stone. To calculate the required material there is a formula: K = ((Lc x hc - Pc) x tc) x (1000000 / (Lb x bb x hb)), where:
- K - the number of required blocks;
- Lc is the length of the walls;
- hc is the height of the walls;
- Pc - the area of the projected windows and doors;
- tc - wall thickness;
- Lb is the length of the selected block;
- bb is the block width;
- hb is the height of the block.
To determine the amount of roofing material, first decide what you will cover the roof. For slate there is the following formula: (Lc / bl) x (Bc / ll), where Lc and Bc are the length and width of the roof slope, and bl and ll are the width and length of the slate sheet, respectively. For tiles, the area of the roof slope should be divided into the area of one tile.
To build a pigsty You need the following tools:
- spade and sovok shovels;
- saw and handsaw;
- nails, bolts, screws and screws;
- screwdriver or screwdriver;
- plumb and tape measure.
Device and construction of premises
How to build their own premises for breeding pigs? The first thing is to bookmark the foundation.
It is often constructed from large stones or concrete slabs with a thickness of approximately 50-70 cm. The depth of foundation installation in the case of loamy soil or soils with high humidity should be no less than the level of soil freezing. The plinth is a part of the foundation that protrudes above ground level. A concrete or asphalted pavement in the height of 0.15–0.2 m, approximately 70 centimeters wide, is constructed on the outer side of the basement. A blind area is needed to remove moisture. The basement is covered with tar or roofing felt.
The flooring in the interior of the pigsty has a great influence on the microclimate prevailing there and the sanitary and hygienic state. Floors are made of even, waterproof, quickly cleaned material, but not slippery, otherwise there is a high risk of injury to pigs, especially pigs.The integrity of the floor should not be broken by any holes, otherwise accumulation of garbage will occur, leading to the appearance of rodents. Before installing the floor, you need to clean the soil from the grass, this surface is covered with a thick layer of thick clay, and a layer of insulation is laid on top.
It is possible to make the floor itself in a pigsty of planks, concrete slabs, bricks or just asphalt. When arranging floors, do not forget about the aisles between the compartments and the trays. The floor in the premises for pigs should rise 15-20 cm above the aisles, and also have a slight inclination to the gutter. Concrete is considered the best material for floors in the pigsty. On top of it, you can install wooden boards or lay out rubber carpets, equip a heating system. The use of bricks is possible in the aisles. Another option - slatted floors. But in places for resting pigs it is better to lay a solid floor of boards.
Do not forget about the litter, for it is most reasonable to use dry grass, sawdust or peat.
Walls and roof
The walls in the pigsty must retain heat, so they are built from insulating, waterproof materials.Concrete, brick, solid wood, saman, and other building materials are used for this purpose. Indoors, walls are plastered and covered with whitewash. The thickness of the walls varies depending on the material from which they are made - if 25 cm is enough for wood, then the thickness of the brick walls can reach 65 cm.
Dimensions of the walls should be calculated depending on the age and productivity of pigs:
- on 1 hog - 15 m3;
- at idle and fattening copies 6 m3 is enough;
- for piglets up to 8 months is quite 3.5 m3.
The roof is laid out of tin, slate sheets, tiles, you can use clay, mixed with straw or reed. To protect the walls from various precipitations, the roof over the walls should be at least 20 cm. If you live in an area with little precipitation, you can reduce the expenditure of money and materials by installing a combined roof without an attic.
In those climatic zones where in summer there is a high probability of overheating or in winter the temperature drops to 20 ° C below zero, it is necessary to build ceilings. They must have a whole set of qualities: low thermal conductivity, non-hygroscopicity, evenness, strength, lightness and low inflammability.The best materials are slabs of reinforced concrete, slab or boards. Indoors, the ceilings are whitened, and a layer of sawdust up to 20 cm thick is poured on the upper part. The attic can be adapted for storing feed and bedding material.
Service windows and doors
The height of the windows in the pigsty is 1.1-1.3 m from the floor. In the northern and central regions of Russia, the frames should be double, in a warmer climate, the use of single frames is permissible. At least half of the windows in the pigsty should be open to ventilate the room when the pigs are on the range. The frames are arranged in such a way that when they open, the outside air is directed upwards, not downwards.
The ratio of the area of windows to the floor area varies for different rooms from 1: 10 to 1: 18:
- for breeding pigs from 1:10 to 1:12;
- for feeding farms - 1: 12-1: 15;
- showers, rooms for procedures and mating - 1: 12;
- feeding rooms - 1:10;
- tambours, rooms for equipment and bedding - 1: 15-1: 18;
- feed preparation rooms - 1:10.
The width of the doors in the machines is different for males and the rest of the herd: for adult males - 0.8-1 m, for others - 0.7-0.75 m.
Doorways for going out
Most often pig breeders are advised to make a gate with a wicket on the south end of the building.It is not bad immediately after them to equip a kind of canopy - utility rooms used for storing feed, bedding material, inventory. The size of the exit to the street depends on the way of feeding the food and cleaning the room from waste. The standard dimensions of the double gates: in height - 2-2.2 m, width 1.5-1.6 m. They must be made of a dense and insulated material.
In the central and northern regions, as well as where powerful winds are frequent, vestibules with a width of about 2.5 m and a depth of 2.8 m are installed in front of the exit gates. If the vestibule has a second destination (for example, a mating room for animals), then its dimensions increase to at least 3x3 m. Many pig producers recommend making several gates: 2 on the front side of the building and additional in the side walls.
Ventilation is needed to replace polluted indoor air with fresh air. In places intended for the collection of manure, slurry and other waste of pigs, the output shaft is mounted. A roof on supports is erected above its upper opening, and the distance between the pipe and the roof should be twice as large as its diameter. The size of the mines varies depending on the age group of the pigs. The values of the cross-sectional area of the exhaust pipe:
- for adult animals - 150-170 cm2;
- for piglets - 25-40 cm2;
- for feeding - about 85 cm2.
For pipes providing fresh air, the cross-sectional area is about 30-40 cm2. True, you can make rectangular supply shafts. They are located at the top of the windows. Cover them from 3 sides with guide plates so that the fresh air goes up first and mixes with the heated room air. Cover the outer holes with a visor.
Lighting and water supply
About lighting already mentioned above, let's talk more about water supply. It must be uninterrupted, the water supplied is clean and easily accessible. Poor organization of water supply can cause constipation in animals, deterioration of digestion, overheating and cold. Below we consider the types of drinkers for pigs.
It is possible to use fan heaters or to mount furnaces for heating the pigsty. You can also install a "warm floor" system when heating pipes are laid between the layers of the floor.
Manure collection system
An important problem when keeping pigs is to clean their manure. To do this, arrange along the aisles slurry or manure trays.They can be made of concrete, halves of clay pipes, treated boards. If you built the floor of the grates in the room, you can simply wash off the manure. The only thing, do not forget to lay a large sewer tray under the floor.
The internal arrangement after the creation of ventilation and lighting systems begins with the division of the premises into stalls. All age groups should be contained in individual machines.
When building a pigsty with their own hands, the machines enclose either wooden fences or metal. Their height is usually not higher than 1 m, a separate wicket is set up in each pen. Firmly lock the pens, simple bolts are not suitable here, the pigs quickly learn to lift them up with their nicks and open the doors.
First you need to determine a place for feeding the pigs and properly equip it. Consider the following factors.
- The dimensions of the feeders depend on the number of pigs and the size of your pigsty. On three pigs there is a rather medium trough, naturally, the feeder is lengthened by a larger amount.Standard sizes: width - 40 cm, depth - 25 cm, length varies depending on the population.
- To make the feeders convenient to clean, their inner surface is rounded. The same purpose serves their easy inclination.
- The integrity of the feeding trough should not be compromised, and the weight of the feeder should be large enough to avoid overturning by pigs. In the case of a light feeder, attach it to the floor.
- For the manufacture of feeders use different materials. Wooden troughs are the safest in terms of the environment, but the period of their use is very short. When using metal troughs give preference to aluminum or stainless alloys.
- To prevent the pigs from climbing into the manger with hoofs, make jumpers on top.
- Clean the feeders regularly, about once a week. In the case of metal troughs, the simplest method of washing is a stream of water from a hose. Wood from frequent contact with water begin to crack and crack. Scrapers will help out here.
There are two types of drinkers.
- Bowls, they have been used since antiquity. Have the most simple device. From such a drinker the animals do not spill water.One major drawback - they require frequent washing due to rapid clogging.
- Nipple or teat. More intricate in design, consist of a water-pressure unit, a pressure regulator, a filter and a water pipe. They are sold in stores, but if you wish, you can make such a drinker with your own hands.
Also when the pigsty be sure to fence off the area for walking pigs, preferably south of the building. It is necessary for the perfect development of animals. Put there a few feeders, drinkers and walk your pigs.
How to make a pigsty with your own hands, see the next video.