Varieties of winter greenhouses
Currently, amateur gardeners strive to delight themselves and their loved ones with vegetables and fruits all year round. Winter greenhouse is perfect for this. In addition, it can be not just a tool for harvesting a summer resident or a gardener's floral hobby, but also an excellent source for business (depending on the design and desires of its owner).
Greenhouse on a private plot is now rarely anyone to be surprised. Winter greenhouses are a special project that is equipped with everything necessary for growing crops during the cold season.
This is a real find: both for ordinary amateur gardeners, and for professional farmers, as well as beginner businessmen.
The main advantages of the winter greenhouse are its convenience and possibilities, thanks to which you can enjoy fresh vegetables all year round.
Its main features include a number of characteristics.
- Capital In contrast to the usual greenhouse or summer greenhouse, built with his own hands, the winter version is more substantial. It will not be possible so simply to "roll" and move from place to place. The design of such a greenhouse requires more effort and money. Heavy frame, dense materials, as well as equipment for heating and light sources will allow to grow crops year-round.
- Square. For the convenience of operating a winter greenhouse, it, as a rule, has a large area and a considerable height, so that workers in it can work comfortably and plant crops receive the necessary conditions for a good harvest. Drawings of such structures take into account all the requirements of the owner, as well as provide a place for various sources and mechanisms for the continuous supply of energy and heat.
- Different zones. Depending on what kind of crops the owner intends to grow, it is worthwhile to foresee the division into zones. Some cultures need more heat, respectively, and heating, and some - less. The design of the greenhouse should contain several adjustablezones, as well as the ability to make additional insulation in case of unforeseen external temperature conditions.
Winter greenhouse will be an excellent tool and source for harvesting during the cold season. As a rule, they are placed on private sites or in the territories of large enterprises. They are equipped with everything necessary for high-quality harvest, however, there are several varieties of their structures that are better suited for one kind or another of its kind and operation.
Views: drawings and diagrams
Currently, there are organizations that offer typical projects of winter greenhouses.
Such schemes can be divided into several types.
- Capital. The framework does not provide for the assembly and disassembly of the structure; it is built on a foundation in the center of which a trench is being built to collect cold air. This is a more reliable option, which with additional sources of illumination guarantees a quality crop in the cold season. In addition, it is extremely convenient in operation and does not require additional insulation. Usually used by professional farmers in order to obtain large quantities of crop.
- Conditionally capital. They are usually built in the suburban areas. Such a drawing provides for a collapsible frame so that, if necessary, the greenhouse can be disassembled and moved to another location. However, this is not the same as summer greenhouses. Such structures require much more time and effort. Piles act as the foundation, and the floor, in most cases, is constructed of wood.
The drawings of year-round greenhouses can also be divided by the types of the design itself.
- Greenhouse thermos. It differs from other variants in that the main part of such a greenhouse is underground. Due to this design, a “thermos” effect is created, which provides the necessary heat for the successful cultivation of crops. The most popular option for summer residents, as well as gardeners.
- Arched greenhouse. Suitable for those who are more comfortable to grow crops in the soil. It is the most difficult in the construction, as often there are problems with the installation and construction of the frame, as well as with plating. Polycarbonate is used as the base material. Most often, this option is purchased “ready” at specialized bases, and after that it is installed at the dacha.
- Greenhouse with double slope roof. The best option for both summer residents and farmers.Due to the design features, there are no problems with the roof sagging, since due to the inclination it is actually self-cleaning. Usually used for those who want to grow crops in boxes. It has a high ceiling, so you can work in it in full growth, which is comfortable for employees.
- Greenhouse with mansard roof. Suitable for business. Usually used for growing flowers, because the design features allow you to place as many tier racks as possible indoors. A warm atmosphere is usually achieved by using stove heating, and transparent walls provide an additional source of lighting.
- Attached to the house greenhouse. A very convenient option, which is often used as a winter garden, rather than for the purpose of growing crops. The heated structure receives an additional source of heat due to the common wall with the house. In addition, the owner has the opportunity to freely enter the greenhouse, crossing the threshold of his own house, without breaking the street.
When developing a drawing, you should also take into account the functionality of the room.It depends on the means available to the owner, as well as his desires and plans for the greenhouse.
Local and exotic crops require different growing conditions. - it is also necessary to pay attention.
The location of the structure in relation to the ground is also important for high-quality heat transfer. A greenhouse may be deepened, superficial, or be part of a heated room (shed, arbor, house, etc.). Particular attention should be paid to the material from which the structure will be made.
Conditionally constructions can be divided into:
- from polycarbonate;
- PVC frame.
Currently, however, winter greenhouses are made from two or more combinations of materials. Thus, the design of the product will be much stronger and more versatile, as well as more resistant to sudden temperature changes.
The frame is usually made of wood or metal. The first is cheaper, but differs by its fragility. Steel versions withstand significant loads and are more resistant to mechanical damage.
Experts recommend using polycarbonate for plating. It has a high degree of thermal insulation, and also has good light transmission.
Glass is recommended to be used for small greenhouses, for a winter garden or greenhouses (since glass is more fragile and has more weight). However, at present, they increase the stability of the structure with double walls or an additional layer of polycarbonate, which (together) will provide heat transfer and will make the room covering more durable.
When building a winter greenhouse, professionals do not recommend using film. as the main means of thermal insulation under the skin, as well as aluminum - because of their fragility and easy impact on them of mechanical damage. In addition, condensate may collect under the film, which may freeze when the temperature rises sharply or the air humidity inside the greenhouse increases.
The size of greenhouses depends entirely on the needs of its owner. For suburban areas suitable options from 5 to 10 square meters. m., in which there is enough space for growing crops for one family.For gardeners, the optimal size for breeding flower beds will be 15-20 square meters. m
To grow crops for sale will require large winter greenhouses, which can occupy an impressive area (up to 200 sq. M.) In large enterprises.
How to build?
Currently, there are companies and services that provide their customers with a catalog of various greenhouses, as well as the ability to make them to order. The construction can be ordered, and after - you can build it yourself or leave it to professionals for an additional fee. However, for many gardeners and gardeners it is not difficult to make a greenhouse with their own hands.
Before you begin, you must determine in advance the place to build. As a rule (depending on the purpose of the greenhouse), the most appropriate type of construction is immediately selected and the foundation is laid.
Before construction, it is important to immediately calculate the material consumption and cost in order to avoid possible problems.
The place itself should be chosen taking into account the most optimal protection from the wind. Otherwise, additional efforts will have to be spent on protecting the product from wind gusts, as well as on its heating.
As a rule, the winter greenhouse consists of a foundation, frame and glazed roof. The greenhouse device should include a ventilation and heating system previously indicated in the drawing in order to further ensure the favorable life of the plants. Of great importance for such a greenhouse is tightness, since the temperature in it is maintained artificially.
If the owner plans to grow plants in the ground, the ceiling of the greenhouse may be low. If work with racks is planned, it is necessary to ensure in advance that the height of the ceiling and the shape of the frame is sufficient for comfortable work of workers.
It is possible to proceed with the manufacture of racks in advance to make sure that they are easy to use even at the construction stage of the building. Usually they are made of wooden bars and planks or plastic.
Winter greenhouse must receive the maximum amount of lighting. In winter, daylight is usually not enough to get a quality crop, so you need to think in advance about the device of artificial lighting. It is important that it is not only effective, but also as safe as possible, as well as reliably protected from moisture and other conditions,which can lead to system closure.
The final stage is the arrangement of a homemade greenhouse from the inside. Usually, in this case, a specialist is attracted so that he is convinced of the safety of all additional systems for the maintenance of the vital activity of plant crops. When placing the beds it is worth making wide aisles for convenience (taking into account the future dimensions of the plants and their needs).
Ready greenhouse in the first year of use needs careful maintenance. It should be attentive to the occurrence of unwanted cracks, as well as to take care of maintaining tightness, to be careful in operation. It is desirable to be able to insulate the greenhouse from the inside during the period of severe frosts.
How to heat?
The selection of the type of heating of the winter greenhouse must be approached responsibly. It is necessary that it conforms to the type of construction structures, as well as meet all safety standards.
For a small greenhouse size of up to 20 square meters. m. there will be enough stove heating. This option is perfect for permanent residents of private houses. Its main advantage is the ability to more finely regulate the temperature inside the greenhouse, due to which you can get a quality crop, and also not to depend on abnormal weather temperatures outside.
Also for such greenhouses you can use biofuels. This is the most economical type of heating greenhouses in winter, but at the same time more time consuming for the owner. It is laid under the fertile soil layer and warms the earth due to natural decomposition processes.
For larger greenhouses, professionals advise using electric or water heating.
Electrical can be divided into air and cable. Air type preserves the necessary favorable temperature conditions for fertile crops inside the greenhouse with the help of special fan heaters.
Cable works on the type of "warm floor", that is, heats the soil from the inside. It is because of this feature that it is extremely important that it be installed correctly and tested in advance in order to avoid detection of problems after the greenhouse has been built.
Water heating is carried out through pipes that can be installed under the ground (or through racks).
Growing plants in winter is not an easy task even with a properly equipped winter greenhouse.For high-quality harvest, it is necessary to use all the advantages of the greenhouse and to foresee many nuances in advance (even before the construction phase of this building).
It is necessary to follow the advice on operation, which give professionals summer residents.
- If you plan to plant such demanding and delicate berries as strawberries in a greenhouse, then you should choose polycarbonate for covering the building, as well as take care of high-quality artificial lighting and prepare racks in which the seedlings will feel comfortable. Growing berries in the ground is undesirable, as this can lead to the death of plants with a strong temperature jump outside.
- It is better to determine zoning in the greenhouse in advance (before arranging the heating system), since cucumbers, carrots, pepper, greens and other crops require different climatic conditions. Having sustained them in advance, you can prepare for a quality crop.
- A greenhouse for breeding flowers must necessarily include in its equipment a device for regulating indoor humidity.
- Growing exotic crops requires more effort than traditional plants.That is why the success of the implementation of such a crop will directly depend on the quality and quantity of all the necessary heat and lighting systems. In some cases, it is worth resorting to the help of specialists to create the most suitable climatic conditions for certain plants.
A successful harvest depends not so much on the proper arrangement of the greenhouse, as on the competent use of its owner.
Design solutions for large winter greenhouses exceed all expectations of private house owners. Winter greenhouse can at once turn from a place to grow plants in a chic place to relax behind a book with a cup of hot tea in their hands. However, one does not exclude the other.
A white frame greenhouse with a high gable roof and glazed windows can be a wonderful greenhouse, which will accommodate not only small shrubs of delicate plants, but also low trees. Brick foundations make this structure more reliable, and the shape of the roof will not allow snow to accumulate for a long time. Glazed surface allows you to enjoy daylight all year round.
The metal greenhouse “hut” with glass walls will be a wonderful decoration of a winter hunting lodge. Water heating (in addition to the wooden interior arrangement) will allow you to enjoy green plants all year round. The sharp shape of the roof in combination with the beams makes it extremely resistant to winter weather, as well as another designer addition to the backyard.
A greenhouse with a stone foundation and a metal frame will be a wonderful childhood memory of an old summer cottage, where a beautiful building could be a winter greenhouse and a beautiful palace at the same time.
Modern winter greenhouses are designed to create aesthetics and mood, to please with greenery, while outside the windows - blizzard and cold.
Review the winter greenhouse, see the video below.